Jump to content


Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
Temporal range: Carboniferous - Present
Conifers, includin the pines an relatit trees an shrubs, is a major diveesion o gymnosperms.
Scientific classification
Kinrick: Plantae
Subkinrick: Embryophyta
(unranked): Gymnospermae (paraphyletic)

Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers
Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo
Cycadophyta - Cycads
Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia

The gymnosperms is a group o seed-producin plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, an Gnetales. The term "gymnosperm" comes frae the Greek wird gymnospermos (γυμνόσπερμος), meanin "naked seeds", efter the unenclosed condeetion o thair seeds (cried ovules in thair unfertilized state). Thair naked condeetion stauns in contrast tae the seeds an ovules o flouerin plants (angiosperms), that is enclosed athin an ovary. Gymnosperm seeds develop aither on the surface o scales or leafs, aften modified tae form cones, or at the end o short stalks as in Ginkgo.

The gymnosperms an angiosperms thegither compone the spermatophytes or seed plants. Bi far the lairgest group o livin gymnosperms is the conifers (pines, cypresses, an relatives), follaed bi cycads, Gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra an Welwitschia), an Ginkgo (a single livin species).