Canton o Geneva

Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
République et Canton de Genève
Coat of airms o République et Canton de Genève
Coat airms
Cairt o Swisserland, location o Geneva highlighted
Location in Swisserland
Cairt o Geneva

Coordinates: 46°2′N 6°7′E / 46.033°N 6.117°E / 46.033; 6.117Coordinates: 46°2′N 6°7′E / 46.033°N 6.117°E / 46.033; 6.117
Subdivisions46 municipalities
 • ExecutiveConseil d'Etat (7)
 • LegislativeGrand Cooncil (100)
 • Total282.49 km2 (109.07 sq mi)
 • Total495,249
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeCH-GE
Heichest point516 m (1,693 ft): Les Arales
Lawest point332 m (1,089 ft): Rhone at Chancy

The Republic an Canton o Geneva (French: République et Canton de Genève; Arpitan: Rèpublica et Canton de Geneva; German: Republik und Kanton Genf; Italian: Repubblica e Canton Ginevra; Romansh: Republica e Chantun Genevra) is the French speakin wastmaist canton or state o Swisserland, surroondit on amaist aw sides bi France. As is the case in several ither Swiss cantons (e.g. Ticino, Neuchâtel, an Jura), this canton is referred tae as a republic athin the Swiss confederation.

The canton o Geneva is locatit in the soothwastren corner o Swisserland; an is considered ane o the maist cosmopolitan auries o the kintra. As a centre o the Calvinist Reformation, the ceety o Geneva haes haed a great influence on the canton, that essentially consists o the ceety an its hinterlands.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Geneva wis a Prince-Bishopric o the Holy Roman Empire frae 1154, but frae 1290, secular authority ower the ceetizens wis dividit frae the bishop's authority, at first anerlie lawer jurisdiction, the office o vidame gien tae François de Candie in 1314, but frae 1387 the bishops grantit the ceetizens o Geneva fou communal sel-govrenment. As frae 1416, the Dukes o Savoy attemptit tae annex the ceety, baith bi claimin secular authority an bi installin members o the Savoy dynasty as bishops, the ceety sought assistance in allyin itsel wi the Auld Swiss Confederacy. The Republic o Geneva wis proclaimit in 1541, unner John Calvin, an gien a constitution (Édits civils) in 1543. The Republic o Geneva reinforcit its alliance tae the Protestant cantons o the Swiss Confederacy, becomin an "iverlastin ally" in 1584.

The French Revolution reached Geneva in 1792, an in Februar 1794, the Republic gied itsel a new, revolutionary constitution that proclaimit the equality o aw ceetizens. Efter the execution o Maximilien Robbespierre in Julie o the same year, thare wis a coonter-revolution, that gained the upper haund bi 1796. This promptit the [[Campaigns

o 1798 in the French Revolutionary Wars#Swisserland|French invasion o 1798]], an the annexation o Geneva as pairt o the French département du Léman. 

Geneva feenally jynt the Swiss Confederation in 1815 as the 22nt canton, haein been enlairgit bi French an Savoyard territories at the Vienna Congress.

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lake Geneva wi the Jet d'Eau on the backgrund
View frae beneath Le Reculet towards Canton o Geneva, Annemasse, the Salève an the Mont-Blanc

The aurie o the canton o Geneva is 282 square kilometer (108.9 sq mi). The canton is surroondit on amaist aw sides bi Fraunce an bordered bi the Swiss canton o Vaud on northeast. The adjoinin French [départements] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) are Ain (tae the north) an Haute-Savoie (tae the sooth an east). The current bundaries o the canton wur established in 1815.

Govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

The constitution o the canton wis established in 1847; an haes, syne then, been amendit several times. The cantonal govrenment (Cooncil o State) haes seiven members wha are electit for fower year.

The legislatur, the Grand Cooncil, haes 100 seats, wi deputies electit for fower year at a time. In the maist recent election, on 11 October 2009, the classical leeberal Leeberal Pairty wis the mucklest pairty, wi 20 seats, follaeed bi the Green Pairty an the populist Geneva Citizens' Muivement, ilk ane wi 17 seats.

In a seemilar wey tae whit happens at the Federal level, ony chynge tae the Constitution is subject tae compulsory referendum. In addition, ony law can be subject tae a referendum if it is demandit bi 7,000 fowk entitled tae vote,[3] an 10,000 fowk mey propose a new law an aw.[4]

Municipalities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Municipalities o the Canton o Geneva

Thare are 45 municipalities in the canton.[5]

Geneva daes no hae ony admeenistrative destricts. Thare are 10 ceeties wi a population o ower 10,000 as o 2007: Geneva (188,174), Vernier (32,038); Lancy (27,548); Meyrin (20,793); Carouge (19,114); Onex (17,328); Thônex (13,251); Versoix (12,468); Grand-Saconnex (10,607); Chêne-Bougeries (10,148).

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Veelage square in Meyrin

The population o the canton (as o 31 December 2017) is 495,249.[6], the population includit 163,951 foreigners, or aboot 37.4 % o the tot population.[7]

The population o the Canton, as o December 2009, contains 161,539 fowk oreeginally frae Geneva (35.3%), 116,504 Swiss frae ither cantons (25.5%) an 179,385 foreigners (39.20%), frae 192 different kintras. Amang them aboot 73% come frae Europe (mony o Albanie oreegin), 9% frae Africae, 9% frae the Americas an 8% frae Asie[8] Includin fowk hauldin multiple citizenship, 54.4% o fowk livin in Geneva hauld a foreign passport.[9]

As hame o Calvin's Reformation, the canton o Geneva haes tradeetionally been a Protestant Christian stranghauld. Housomeivver, ower the latter pairt o the 20t century the proportion o Catholics (40%) rose, in lairge pairt due tae immigration fre Soothren Europe, an nou thay ootnumber Protestants (17%)[10] in the canton. Housomeivver, the canton is still offeecially considered Protestant. The surroondin regions o Fraunce are maistly Roman Catholic.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety o Geneva dominates the economy o the canton. It is a centre o commerce, tred an finance. Geneva is o international significance anaw as a financial center. A great nummer o Swiss banks are locatit in Geneva, pairticularly in the aurie o private bankin.

The service industry is maist significant in Geneva whaur thare heidquarters o a nummer o internaitional corporations an organisations, sic as the Unitit Naitions an the International Labor Organization. Agricultur is commonplace in the hinterlands o Geneva, pairticularly wheat an wine. Precision machinery an instruments are ither branches whaur the economy o the canton o Geneva is strang. This is an aw reflectit in the tradeetion o watchmakkin in Geneva.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Transports Publics Genevois tram

Maist o the main roads in the canton o Geneva radiate frae the caipital ceety o Geneva. O thir main roads, a great nummer lead intae Fraunce rather than ony Swiss canton. The canton is servit bi an internaitional airport at Cointrin (Geneva Internaitional Airport) that haes ane terminal anerlie. Thare guid rail links tae ceeties in Fraunce an Swisserland. Syne 1984 the French heich-speed trains (TGV) come tae Geneva. In 1964 the canton o Geneva wis connectit tae the Swiss heich-gate seestem, in 1970 tae that o France.

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

The main educational institution is the University o Geneva, foondit in 1559 bi Calvin. It wis oreeginally cried Schola Genevensis. The oreeginal buildings arnae uised bi the University ony mair, but bi Collège Calvin.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jeûne genevois is a public holiday specific tae Geneva, celebratit on the Thursday follaein the first Sunday o September.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Arealstatistik Land Cover - Kantone und Grossregionen nach 6 Hauptbereichen accessed 27 October 2017
  2. "STAT-TAB – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit" (online database) (official site) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office - FSO. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  3. Condition pour l'aboutissement d'un référendum cantonal (in French) accessed 27 April 2011
  4. Condition pour l'aboutissement d'une initiative cantonale (in French) accessed 27 April 2011
  5. "Liste officielle des communes de la Suisse - 01.01.2008". Office fédéral de la statistique. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
  6. "STAT-TAB – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit" (online database) (official site) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office - FSO. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  7. Federal Department of Statistics (2008). "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit, Geschlecht und Kantonen" (Microsoft Excel). Retrieved 5 November 2008.
  8. Population of Geneva, on the website of Statistique Genève. Archived 2012-03-22 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Les binationaux dans le canton de Genève. Résultats du recensement fédéral de la population 2000, Communications statistiques n° 24 (PDF) (Report). OCSTAT, Geneva. 2005. Retrieved 12 Mey 2011. (in French)
  10. Federal Department of Statistics (2004). "Wohnbevölkerung nach Religion" (Interactive Map). Retrieved 15 Januar 2009.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]