Calatafimi-Segesta

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Calatafimi-Segesta
Comune di Calatafimi-Segesta
Calatafimi segesta.jpg
Calatafimi-Segesta is locatit in Italy
Calatafimi-Segesta
Calatafimi-Segesta
Location o Calatafimi-Segesta in Italy
Coordinates: 37°54′N 12°51′E / 37.900°N 12.850°E / 37.900; 12.850
KintraItaly
RegionSicily Sicily
ProvinceTrapani (TP)
FrazioniSasi
Govrenment
 • MayorNicolò Ferrara
Area
 • Total154 km2 (59 sq mi)
Elevation
338 m (1,109 ft)
Population
 (2007)
 • Tot7,258
 • Density47/km2 (120/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Calatafimesi
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
91013
Dialin code0924
Patron sauntMaist Holy Crucifix an Madonna o Giubino
Saunt day1 Mey
WabsteidOffeecial wabsteid

Calatafimi-Segesta (Sicilian: Calatafimi-Seggesta) is a sma toun, mair popularly kent simply as Calatafimi, in the Province o Trapani, in Sicily, soothren Italy.

The full name o the municipality wis creatit in 1999 an is meant tae heichlicht the presence athin its territory o the 5t century BC Doric temple o Segesta, widely regardit as ane o the maist intact o its type. Adjoinin the temple, on a nearbi hilltop, is a 2nt century Roman amphitheatre.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The toun wis developed durin the age o the Muslim emirate o Sicily, when it wis kent as Qal`at(a)fīmī ( قلعة فيمي ), referrin tae the defensive castle owerleukin the toun, nou pairtially restored frae ruins. Ane hypothesis for the castle's name derives it frae "Castrum Phimes" - a stranghauld protectin the territory o a Roman period nobleman mentioned bi Cicero, Diocles Phimes. Anither hypothesis derives it frae "Castle o Euphemius", possibly referrin tae the 5t century Byzantine patriarch bi that name or, mair likely, tae the 9t century Euphemius o Sicily, a legendary figur who wis said tae hae brocht Muslim mercenaries tae Sicily in 827 tae help defend his throne, anerlie tae hae them conquer the island for thairsels.

Calatafimi's pairt o Sicily wis ane o the first tae be occupee'd bi the Aghlabids frae Ifriqiya in thair conquest o the island, an wis ane o the last centres o Islamic cultur efter the end o the Norman rule. The excavations near Segesta hae revealed a 12t-century Islamic necropolis an mosque. Thare are reference tae an Islamic-period toun cried Calathamet (Qal`at al-Hammah - قلعة الحمّة), on the mairch o the territories o Calatafimi an Castellammare del Golfo an aw, possibly equatin the modren Terme Segestani.

Frae 1336 till 1860, Calatafimi wis feudal territory unner Habsburg an Spainyie nobles, despite three attempts tae regain an unthirlt status (1399, 1412 an 1802).

It wis on a hill near Calatafimi, cried Pianto Romano, that, in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi an his Mille first encoontered the truips o the Bourbons on a battlefield (see the Battle o Calatafimi). This wis the first significant battle o the Italian unification (or Risorgimento) an it wis at this battle that Garibaldi wis said tae hae uttered the famous battle cry: "Here we mak Italy, or we dee". A memorial, in the form o lairge stane obelisk containin an ossuary o the remains o those fawen in the battle, currently marks the hilltop.

In his later life, the 19t century Inglis novelist Samuel Butler made annual trips tae Calatafimi, an a street in toun wis namit efter him. Simmer theatre is held in the Roman amphitheater at Segesta ivery ither year. A new airchaeological museum is bein creatit that will show fyndins frae the Segesta airchaeological excavations.

Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

The population o Calatafimi in 1901 wis recordit as 11,426. Subsequent major emigrations due tae poverty an unemployment kept the nummer frae growin an, efter 1950, the population began decreasing. Prior tae 1900, the main destination wis Tunisie; efter 1900 it wis the Unitit States an Argentinae.

Efter Warld War II, Canadae an Australie became destinations, as did Germany an Great Breetain an the major ceeties o the Italian mainland. The census o 2004 showed Calatafimi wi anerlie aboot 7,500 permanent residents, awtho the pheesical size o the toun haed grown, as faimilies occupee'd lairger residences. Follaein severe damage in the 1968 Belice earthquake, a new section o toun, Sasi, wis biggit on umwhile fermlands aboot 3 kilometers frae the auld toun center.

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

The kirk o the Santissimo Crocifisso wis biggit tae hoose the sae-cried Maist Holy Crucifix (see Cultur) circa 1700. The co-patroness o the toun is the Madonna o Giubino; a kirk wis biggit in 1721 tae hoose an allegedly miraculous marble-relief icon o the madonna, which is brocht tae a kintra chapel during the simmer. (A copy o the relief is hoosed in the Kirk o St. Joseph in Brooklyn, New York, givin testimony tae the lairge emigrant commonty o Calatafimesi who livit in Brooklyn in the early 20t century.)

The "mither" kirk o the toun is San Silvestro Papa (dedicated tae Pape Sylvester), restructured circa 1500.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1657 wis held the first procession o the Maist Holy Crucifix - an ebony-figured crucifix creditit for miraculous healins o some o the toun's elite. This toun festival receivit additional impetus in 1728, when Calatafimi's civilian militia (the Maestranza guild o airtisans) successfully defee'd a Habsburg edict tae disairm bi bein declared the protectors o the toun's kirks. A tradeetion wis established o hauldin a three-day toun festival o the Santissimo Crocifisso ivery third year. O late, housomeivver, the period stretched - first tae ivery five years an nou ivery seiven or aicht years. The maist recent festivals wur in 1997, 2004, an 1-3 Mey 2012.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The economy o Calatafimi is primarily agricultural, the maist important crops bein citrus, grapes an olives.

Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calatafimi". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.