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Skeletal formula detail o benzene
Skeletal formula detail o benzene
Stack o benzene baw-an-stick model
Stack o benzene baw-an-stick model
Frozen benzene
IUPAC name
Seestematic IUPAC name
Ither names
1,3,5-Cyclohexatriene, Benzol, Phene
3D model (JSmol)
EC Nummer 200-753-7
RTECS nummer CY1400000
Molar mass 78.11 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Odour Aromatic, petrol-like
Density 0.8765(20) g/cm3[1]
Meltin pynt 5.53 °C (41.95 °F; 278.68 K)
Bylin pynt 80.1 °C (176.2 °F; 353.2 K)
1.53 g/L (0 °C)
1.81 g/L (9 °C)
1.79 g/L (15 °C)[2][3][4]
1.84 g/L (30 °C)
2.26 g/L (61 °C)
3.94 g/L (100 °C)
21.7 g/kg (200 °C, 6.5 MPa)
17.8 g/kg (200 °C, 40 MPa)[5]
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, CHCl3, CCl4, diethyl ether, acetone, acetic acid[5]
Solubility in ethanediol 5.83 g/100 g (20 °C)
6.61 g/100 g (40 °C)
7.61 g/100 g (60 °C)[5]
Solubility in ethanol 20 °C, solution in water:
1.2 mL/L (20% v/v)[6]
Solubility in acetone 20 °C, solution in water:
7.69 mL/L (38.46% v/v)
49.4 mL/L (62.5% v/v)[6]
Solubility in diethylene glycol 52 g/100 g (20 °C)[5]
log P 2.13
Vapour pressur 12.7 kPa (25 °C)
24.4 kPa (40 °C)
181 kPa (100 °C)[7]
λmax 255 nm
Magnetic susceptibility 54.8·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD) 1.5011 (20 °C)
1.4948 (30 °C)[5]
Viscosity 0.7528 cP (10 °C)
0.6076 cP (25 °C)
0.4965 cP (40 °C)
0.3075 cP (80 °C)
Molecular shape Tetrahedral
0 D
Speceefic heat capacity, C 134.8 J/mol·K
Staundart molar
173.26 J/mol·K[7]
Std enthalpy o
48.7 kJ/mol
Std enthalpy o
3267.6 kJ/mol[7]
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labelling o Chemicals (GHS)The skull-an-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin o Chemicals (GHS)The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin of Chemicals (GHS)[8]
GHS signal wird Danger
GHS hazard statements H225, H304, H315, H319, H340, H350, H372[8]
GHS precautionary statements P201, P210, P301+310, P305+351+338, P308+313, P331[8]
NFPA 704
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondFlammability code 3: Liquids an solids that can be ignited unner awmaist ae ambient temperature condeetions. Flash pynt atween 23 an 38 °C (73 an 100 °F). E.g., gasoline)Health code 3: Short exposur could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash pynt −11.63 °C (11.07 °F; 261.52 K)
497.78 °C (928.00 °F; 770.93 K)
Explosive leemits 1.2–7.8%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
930 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Relatit compoonds
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Benzene is an organic chemical compoond wi the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is componed o sax caurbon atoms jynt in a ring wi ane hydrogen atom attached tae ilk. As it conteens anerly caurbon an hydrogen atoms, benzene is clessed as a hydrocaurbon.

Benzene is a naitural constituent o crude ile an is ane o the elementar petrochemicals. Due tae the cyclic conteenous pi bond atween the caurbon atoms, benzene is clessed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the seicont [n]-annulene ([6]-annulene). It is whiles abbreviatit PhH. Benzene is a colourless an heichly flammable liquid wi a sweet smell, an is responsible for the aroma aroond petrol stations. It is uised primarily as a precursor tae the manufacture o chemicals wi mair complex structur, uic as ethylbenzene an cumene, o that billions o kilogrammes are produced annually. As benzene haes a heich octane nummer, aromatic derivatives lik toluene an xylene teepically comprise up tae 25% o petrol. Benzene itsel haes been leemitit tae less nor 1% in petrol acause it is a kent human carcinogen. Most nan-industrial applications hae been leemitit as weel for the same raison.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  2. Arnold, D.; Plank, C.; Erickson, E.; Pike, F. (1958). "Solubility of Benzene in Water". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Chemical & Engineering Data Series. 3 (2): 253. doi:10.1021/i460004a016.
  3. Breslow, R.; Guo, T. (1990). "Surface tension measurements show that chaotropic salting-in denaturants are not just water-structure breakers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (1): 167–9. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87..167B. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.1.167. PMC 53221. PMID 2153285.
  4. Coker, A. Kayode; Ludwig, Ernest E. (2007). Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical And Petrochemical Plants. 1. Elsevier. p. 114. ISBN 0-7506-7766-X. Retrieved 31 Mey 2012.
  5. a b c d e "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 29 Mey 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. a b Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1952). [Google Books Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds] Check |url= value (help). Van Nostrand. Retrieved 29 Mey 2014.
  7. a b c Benzene in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. (retrieved 2014-05-29)
  8. a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Benzene. Retrieved on 2014-05-29.