Toluene

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Toluene
Toluol.svg
Toluene-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Names
IUPAC name
Methylbenzene
Ither names
toluene
phenylmethane
toluol
Anisen
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.297
KEGG
RTECS nummer XS5250000
UNII
Properties
C7H8
Molar mass 92.14 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid[1]
Density 0.87 g/mL (20 °C)[1]
Meltin pynt −95 °C (−139 °F; 178 K)
Bylin pynt 111 °C (232 °F; 384 K)
0.47 g/L (20 °C) [1]
Refractive index (nD) 1.497 (20 °C)
Viscosity 0.590 cP (20 °C)
Structur
0.36 D
Hazards
Main hazards highly flammable
R-phrases R11, R38, R48/20, R63, R65, R67
S-phrases (S2), S36/37, S29, S46, S62
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids an solids that can be ignited unner awmaist ae ambient temperature condeetions. Flash pynt atween 23 an 38 °C (73 an 100 °F). E.g., gasoline)Health code 2: Intense or continued but nae chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity (yellae): no hazard codeSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
2
Flash pynt 6 °C (43 °F; 279 K)[1]
Threshold Leemit Value 50 mL m−3, 190 mg m−3
Relatit compoonds
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Toluene is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners. It is a mono-substitution benzene derivative, i.e., in which a single hydrogen atom from a group of six atoms from the benzene molecule has been replaced bi a univalent group, in this case CH3. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methyl benzene.

It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely used as an industrial feed for livestock and as a solvent. Like other solvents, toluene is sometimes an used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties; however, inhaling toluene has a potential to cause severe neurological harm.[2][3] Toluene is an important organic solvent, but is an capable of dissolving a number of notable inorganic chemicals such as sulfur,[4] iodine, bromine, phosphorus, an other non-polar covalent substances.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Record in the GESTIS Substance Database frae the IFA
  2. Streicher HZ, Gabow PA, Moss AH, Kono D, Kaehny WD (1981). "Syndromes of toluene sniffing in adults". Annals of Internal Medicine. 94 (6): 758–62. PMID 7235417. 
  3. Devathasan G, Low D, Teoh PC, Wan SH, Wong PK (1984). "Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents". Aust N Z J Med. 14 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.1984.tb03583.x. PMID 6087782. 
  4. Hogan, C. Michael (2011), "Sulfur", in Jorgensen, A.; Cleveland, C. J., Encyclopedia of Earth, Washington DC: National Council for Science and the Environment, retrieved 26 October 2012, Sulfur is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide, somewhat soluble in other non-polar organic solvents such as the aromatics benzene and toluene.