Toluene

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Toluene
Toluol.svg
Toluene-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Names
IUPAC name
Methylbenzene
Ither names
toluene
phenylmethane
toluol
Anisen
Identifiers
108-88-3 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:17578 N
ChEMBL ChEMBL9113 YesY
ChemSpider 1108 YesY
DrugBank DB01900 N
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG C01455 YesY
PubChem
RTECS nummer XS5250000
UNII 3FPU23BG52 YesY
Properties
C7H8
Molar mass 92.14 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid[1]
Density 0.87 g/mL (20 °C)[1]
Meltin pynt −95 °C (−139 °F; 178 K) [1]
Bylin pynt 111 °C (232 °F; 384 K) [1]
0.47 g/L (20 °C) [1]
Refractive index (nD) 1.497 (20 °C)
Viscosity 0.590 cP (20 °C)
Structure
Dipole moment 0.36 D
Hazards
Main hazards highly flammable
Safety data sheet SIRI.org
R-phrases R11, R38, R48/20, R63, R65, R67
S-phrases (S2), S36/37, S29, S46, S62
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids an solids that can be ignited unner awmaist ae ambient temperature condeetions. Flash pynt atween 23 an 38 °C (73 an 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 2: Intense or continued but nae chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity (yellae): no hazard code Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash pynt 6 °C (43 °F; 279 K)[1]
Threshold Leemit Value 50 mL m−3, 190 mg m−3
Related compounds
Relatit aromatic hydrocarbons benzene
xylene
naphthalene
Relatit compoonds methylcyclohexane
Except whaur otherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Toluene /ˈtɒln/, umwhile kent as toluol /ˈtɒlɒl/, is a clear, watter-insoluble liquid wi the typical smell o paint thinners. It is a mono-substitutit benzene derivative, i.e., ane in which a single hydrogen atom frae a group o sax atoms frae the benzene molecule haes been replaced bi a univalent group, in this case CH3. As such, its IUPAC seestematic name is methylbenzene.

It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely uised as an industrial feedstock an as a solvent. Lik ither solvents, toluene is sometimes an aa uised as an inhalant drug for its intoxicatin properties; however, inhalin toluene haes potential tae cause severe neurological harm.[2][3] Toluene is an important organic solvent, but is an aa capable o dissolving a nummer o notable inorganic chemicals such as sulfur,[4] iodine, bromine, phosphorus, an ither non-polar covalent substances.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Record in the GESTIS Substance Database frae the IFA
  2. Streicher HZ, Gabow PA, Moss AH, Kono D, Kaehny WD (1981). "Syndromes of toluene sniffing in adults". Annals of Internal Medicine 94 (6): 758–62. PMID 7235417. 
  3. Devathasan G, Low D, Teoh PC, Wan SH, Wong PK (1984). "Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents". Aust N Z J Med 14 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.1984.tb03583.x. PMID 6087782. 
  4. Hogan, C. Michael (2011), "Sulfur", in Jorgensen, A.; Cleveland, C. J., Encyclopedia of Earth, Washington DC: National Council for Science and the Environment, retrieved 26 October 2012, Sulfur is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide, somewhat soluble in other non-polar organic solvents such as the aromatics benzene and toluene.