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Auld Testament

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The Auld Testament is the name gien tae the ingaitherin o beuks that maks up the first pairt o the Christian Bible. Forby Christians, Jews haud the beuks tae be haly an aw; thay cry thaim the Tanakh. Scholars for ordinar uise the term The Ebrue Bible.

Beuks[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Protestant Auld Testament an The Ebrue Bible o the Jews is gey seemilar. The differs atween the twa is smaw, tae the maist pairt adae wi the sortin an nummer o the beuks; for exemplar, The Ebrue Bible haes Kings as ae quair, but the Protestant Auld Testament spleets it in twa. In the same gate, The Ebrue Bible gies Ezra an Nehemiah as ae beuk, while the Protestant Auld Testament spleets thaim in twa an aw.

The Roman Catholic kirk an the Eastren Orthodox an Oriental Orthodox kirks haes beuks an pairts o beuks that's in the early Greek translate cried The Septuagint but arna in The Ebrue Bible. Thir kirks cries thaim Deutrocanonical Beuks, while Protestants haud thaim as apocryphal.

A wabsteid wi a guid page compearin the canons can be fund here [1].

Pairts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bi tradeetion, The Ebrue Bible is spleet intil three pairts viz. The Law (תורה - 'Torah in Ebrue), The Prophets (נביאים -Nevi'im in Ebrue) an The Scrievins (כתובים - Ketuvim in Ebrue). Gin ye tak the three first letters o thir wirds in Ebrue an jyne thaim thegither, ye get TNK - that's whaur Tenakh comes frae.

Please merk that the sortin o the beuks as gien ablo is the sortin tae be fund in The Ebrue Bible, syne that is the oreeginal order. For tae see the Protestant, Cathloic, Eastren Orthodox or Oriental Orthodox sortin, uise the link gien in the section anent "Beuks" abuin. Syne the Deutrocanonical Beuks/ Apocrypha kythna in The Ebrue Bible, this princeeple appleesna tae thaim.

Torah[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Torah is cried The Pentateuch forby, that's frae the Greek Πεντετεύχως meanin Five Quairs. Thir beuks are the first five beuks o the Christian an Jewish Screepturs, an is the maist important beuks o the hail Jewish faith. They tell the unco early lair o the Jewish fowk, as weel as giein the Jewish releegious laws.
The beuks o the Torah is:

  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Nummers
  • Duetoronomy

Tho tradeetion threaps that thir beuks wis written maistly bi Moses (an sae thay are whiles cried The Bueks o Moses) maist modren scholars hauds that thay are the affcome o the jynin thegither o fower deeferent documents written at deeferent times. The names gien tae thir hypothetical documents is The Yahwistic Tradeetion, The Elohistic Tradeetion, The Deuteronmistic Tradeetion an The Priestly Tradeetion.

  • The Yahwistic Tradeetion (cutty form - J).

This is sae cried acause it aye cries God Yahweh, uisin the Saicret Name. It maun come frae the time o King Solomon c. 950 BC. Explainin why the cutty form is J an no Y is a bit o a fankle, but it basicaly comes frae a auld-farrant (an wrangous) wey o transliteratin the Ebrue Y as J.

  • The Elohistic Tradeetion (cutty form - E)

Sae cried syne it uised the wird אלהים - Elohim for God. This wis aiblins written aboot 750 BC in the Norran Kinrick efter the skailin o the Kinrick o Dauvit an Solomon. At some pynt boot 700 BC, the J an E tradeetions micht hae been jyned thegither in Jerusalem tae mak a document whiles cryed JE.

  • The Deuteronmistic Tradeetion (cutty form - D)

Abuin aw this beuk is conteened in Deuteronomy but pairts o it micht kythe in ither pairts o the Torah forby. It is jaloused tae hae been stairtit in the Norran Kinrick an feenished in Jerusalem.

  • The Priestly Tradeetion (cutty form - P)

This wis maist likely written durin the Jewish thirldom in Babylon (587 - 538 BC). Efter bein exiled tae a fremmit kintra (i.e. Babylon), the priests o the Jews did whit thay coud tae uphaud the faith o the fowk, an this document wis the affcome.

Thir fower tradeetions wis brocht thegither aboot 400 BC, efter the retour frae Babylon, an haes aften been attributit tae Ezra the scribe, tho hou muckle wark he did (gin, atweel, he did onything) isna possible tae tell the nou.

Nevi'im[eedit | eedit soorce]

Five Prophets[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Samuel
  • Kings

Thir beuks win on wi the history (specially the releegious history) o the Jewish fowk durin an efter the reddin in the "Hechtit Land" o Canaan that follaed on frae the flicht frae Egyp telt o in the Torah (specially Exodus). Thir wis unco teuch times for the Jews, an mony time thay haed tae fecht for tae haud thair ain in thair new hameland. At first the kintra wis a republic, but efter some time the fowk saucht tae hae a king ower thaim. The beuk o Samuel (spleet in twa in Christian Bibles) tells o hou the Laird waled Saul tae be the first king o Israel, an o Dauvit efter him, while tellin o the role o the prophet Samuel himsel. Kings that is spleet in twa bi Christians, is an upcast o the Kings o Israel an Judah (the kinrick spleet in twa efter the daith o King Solomon).

Later Prophets[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Isaiah
  • Jeremiah
  • Ezekiel

Prophesies o howp an juidgment as weel as weirdins anent the futur is tae be fund in aw the prophetic beuks, an thir anes isna an exception. Isaiah specially wairns the fowk o Israel tae tak tent o whit he says anent repentance for sins. It is important tae see that the fowk o the time saw the poleetical heal o thair naition as bein sib tae thair moral heal. The Prophets saw that the sinnin an want o regaird for the Laird an His laws wis leadin tae a an unco muckle mishanter in the form o the kinricks bein owerin bi fremmit pouers an thair fowk cairied aff intil exile. Some beukmen & weemin jalouse that pairt o Issaih wis written afore the exile, pairt durin an pairt efter - syne it seems that thare are three authors at wirk in that beuk. The prophet Jeremiah telt o the comin faw o Jerusalem, an leeved tae see it at the end o his days. Ezekiel wis a prophet o the sae cried "exilic stent".

Twal Minor Prophets[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Hosea
  • Joel
  • Amos
  • Obadiah
  • Jonah
  • Micah
  • Nahum
  • Habakkuk
  • Zephaniah
  • Haggai
  • Zechariah
  • Malachi

The minor prophets isna cried sic acuase thay haed anerly smaw importance, but acause the beuks that beirs thair names is cutty whan evened aside the langer warks sic as Isaiah or Ezekiel. Thir quairs is anent a muckle reenge o subjects - Amos haes a hantle anent social juistice, Jonah tells o the need for aw fowk (no juist the Jews) tae repent an tak tent o the Laird's wairnishments. Haggai an Zechariah wis written efter the retour frae the exile an deal wi the re-biggin o the Temple. The muckle reenge o subjects kivvered maks for teuch readin at pynts, as daes the aften heichly allegorical leid uised - an the same gaes for the mony poetical pairts that aften lose mair nor a tait o thair oreeginal "flowe" whan pitten ower intil anither leid. As for authorskip an ither provenance, the quairs thaimsels aften gies us anerly a tait information anent the scrievers an the steid an time o thair componin, tho it's jaloused bi maist beukmen & weemin that maist o the prophets wis based in Jerusalem.

Ketuvim[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thrie Beuks o Musardie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thir beuks is beuks o sangs an musardie (Psaums), wyce sayins (Proverbs) siclike. Bi tradeetion, King Dauvit wis the scriever o mony o the Psaums, but no aw o thaim an his son King Solomon scrieved maist o the Provribs.

Psaums is a gaitherin o mony releegious sangs. Thay are anent the hail reenge o human experience in relation tae God, the guid an the bad stents o life as weel as liturgical pairts forby. Sangs o praise as weel as some dealin wi the mair fashfu times are tae be fund in this beuk. The musardrie is unco deeferent frae wir modren poetic tradeetions, wi parallelism an acrostic structurs that wis raither common in Ebrue musardie o the time. The Psaums hae for mony year been central tae wirship for baith Jews an Christians. The Kirk o Scotland haes bi tradeetion uised the Psaums syne the Reformation.

Provribs is a gaitherin o mony wyce sayins, the feck o whit is attribute tae Dauvit's son, King Solomon. Tho his name is mentiont at the stairt o the beuk, it is naewhaur threapit direct in the beuk that Solomon wis the scriever. That said, he is said tae hae been unco wyce, an in 1 Kings 4:29-34 he is said tae hae scrieved mony sangs an provribs. Whither he scrieved the provribs or gaithered thaim (or baith, an tae whit gree) is still debatit. At least twa ither fowk is said tae hae scrieved provribs in the beuk -Agur son o Jakeh an a chiel cried Lemuel (or aiblins his mither). The last twa-three is bi an unkent scriever. It shaws, in some respects, the influence o an Egyptian beuk cried The Instructions of Amenemopet

Job is thocht bi some tae be the auldest beuk o the hail Bible. It is a lang treatise anent sufferin an whit man maun dree an thole on the yird. Forby, it haes some lang pairts in it anent the pouer o God.

Five Megillot[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Sang o Sangs
  • Ruth
  • Lamentations
  • Ecclesiastes
  • Esther

Sang o Sangs is attributit tae King Solomon, an sae it is kent forby as The Sang o Solomon. It is anent luve atween a man an a wumman, tho some fowk sees it as an allegory anent the relationship atween God an his fowk, at least in pairt.

Ruth is a cutty beuk that some threaps tae be the ae beuk in the Bible scrieven bi a wumman, tho this is juist conjectur. A muckle theme in the beuk is the duty tae bield the waik an brashy.

The doulsome beuk o Lamentations is attribute tae the prophet Jeremiah, an is anent the murnin follaein the faw o Jerusalem in 586 BC. It is read liturgically bi Jews whan thay mind the faw o Jerusalem at the fastin day o Tish B'Av.

Ecclesiastes is in some respects mair pheelosophical nor some beuks o the Bible, an a tait mair doulsome nor maist. It taks a guid leuk at hou rhymless an knotless mony o man's warks an daeins is. The kenspeckle passage anent "a time fer ilka thing" is taen frae Ecclesiastes. This beuk soudna be taen as the same as Ecclesiasticus that's a deeferent beuk awthegither an is o the Deutrocanonical/ Apocryphal curn.

The beuk o Esther is setten in the time o exile durin the waldin o King Xerxes. This is the ae beuk o the Bible that the name o God disna kythe in ava. It tells o hou Esther, a bonny young Jewish quean that wis mairiet on the King wis able tae pit a stap tae a planned killin o her fowk, an sicweys the oreegins o the Jewish festival o Purim.

Ither Beuks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Daniel
  • Ezra-Nehemiah
  • Chronicles

Lik Esther, the beuk o Daniel comes frae the exilic stent. It is unco teuch tae unnerstaund, specially modren readers that's no acquent wi the metaphorical eemagery an the apocalyptic genre as a hail. It is in pairt an accoont o some o the Godly Jewish chiels an whit thay haed tae thole in Babylon for the sake o thair faith. It haes weirdins anent the end o the yird an veesions that the scriever threapit tae hae haed an aw.

Ezra-Nehemiah is taen tae be the ae beuk bi the Jews, but Christian Bibles spleets it in twa (i.e. intil the beuks o Ezra an Nehemiah). Ezra tells o the endin the Babylonian exile an o the stairtin o the retour tae Jerusalem an Judah, an Nehemiah cairies on efter this gate an tells o the re-biggin o the waw o Jerusalem an its dedication as weel as haen some data anent the state o the Jewish fowk an thair releegion at the time. This beuk (or "thir beuks") micht hae been screiven at aboot the same time as that o the prophet Malachi.

Chronicles (ance mair, this ane is spleet in twa bi Christians) is anent Jewish history an kivers muckle o the same time kivered bi the ither historical warks sic as Kings.

Deutrocanonical Beuks/ Apocrypha[eedit | eedit soorce]

Catholic[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Roman Catholic Kirk hauds the follaein beuks as "Deutrocanonical", but Protestants dinna haud thaim as canonical ava. Thay are anent a reenge o things - frae mair wyce sayins efter the gate o Provribs (Wisdom Ben Sira) tae history (the beuks o the Maccabees that tells o the war the Jews haed tae fecht for unthrildom agin the Greek Seleucid Empire, aboot a entury afore the kythin o Jesus) an a tait ither subjects forby thon. Thay war taen intil the Catholic canon o Screeptur efter some dackle, thair staundin chyngin frae "nane-canoncical" tae "deutrocanonical" efter twa-three cooncils anent the maiter, sic as the Cooncil o Trent.

  • Tobit
  • Judith
  • Eikins tae Esther (Vulgate Esther 10:4-16:24, but see foby Esther in the NAB) *Wisdom Ben Sira, cried forby Sirach or Ecclesiasticus (no tae be confuised wi the beuk o Ecclesiastes, see abuin)
  • Baruch, includin the Letter o Jeremiah (Eikins tae Jeremiah in The Septuagint)
  • Eikins tae Daniel:
    • Sang o the Three Bairns (Vulgate Daniel 3:24-90)
    • Story o Susanna (Vulgate Daniel 13, Septuagint prologue)
    • The Idol Bel an the Draigon (Vulgate Daniel 14, Septuagint epilogue)
  • 1 Maccabees
  • 2 Maccabees

Eastren Orthodox[eedit | eedit soorce]

The follaein beuks is rejectit bi Jews, Protestants an Catholics, but acceptit bi the Eastren Orthodox Kirk efter the Senyie o Jerusalem.

  • 1 Esdras
  • 3 Maccabees
  • 4 Maccabees (in appendix bot no canonical)
  • Prayer o Manasseh
  • Psaum 151 (The beuk o Psaums in The Ebreu Bible haes anerly 150 psaums)

Roushian an Ethiopian Orthodox Kirks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thir kirks hauds the follaein beuk as pairt o thair canon.

  • 2 Esdras

Ethiopian Orthodox Kirk[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Ethiopian Orthodox Kirk taks thir beuks intil thair canon forby. The beuk o Enoch is quotit frae in the New Testament letter o Jude, an syne c. AD 90 the Jews haes rejectit it (accordin tae the seicont century theologian Tertullain this wis acause it haed weirdins anent the Christ). This quotation awmaist led tae Jude bein rejectit bi the Christian Kirks.

  • Jubilees
  • Enoch
  • 1–3 Meqabyan
  • 4 Baruch

Syriac Peshitta Bible[eedit | eedit soorce]

An lastly the Syriac Peshitta Bible haes the follaein that the ither kirks an canons disna.

  • Psaums 152–155 (The beuk o Psaums in The Ebreu Bible haes anerly 150 psaums)
  • 2 Baruch

Dates[eedit | eedit soorce]

The muckle feck o Biblical scholars grees that aw the quairs o The Auld Testament wis aw scrieved an componed atween the Twalt Century BC an the Seicont Century BC. Sae the beuks o The Auld Testament wis aw completit afore the birth o Jesus an the scrievin o The New Testament. As sic, the Screepturs uised bi Jesus includes aw o whit we nou cry The Ebrue Bible as weel as aiblins some ither Jewish warks o the time.

Leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Awmaist the hail o The Ebrue Bible wis scrieved in Ebrue, tho some cutty pairts o Daniel wis scrieved in Aramaic. Atween the third an first centuries BC, Jewish scholars in Alexandria pit it ower intil Greek, eikin some beuks an pairts o beuks as thay did sae. Thir eikins cam tae be kent as deutrocanonical bi Catholics an Orthodoc Christians, an as apocryphal bi Prostestants. The translate cam tae be kent as The Septuagint.

Translates intil Scots[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tho thare is yet tae be a translate o the hail Bible intil Scots, mair nor twa-three translates o Auld Testament beuks hae been made. Maist o thaim hae been pitten ower frae Inglis raither nor the oreeginal Ebrue, but this isna the case for thaim aw.

  • Murdoch Nisbet (c. 1520) pit The New Testament ower intil Scots, but he pit ower some pairts o The Auld Testament forby. His wark wis pitten ower frae an earlier Inglis translate bi Purvey.
  • Henry Scott Riddell (1857) pit oot a translate o the beuk o Psaums that wis taen frae the Inglish Authorised Version (kent as the King James Version an aw).†
  • In 1858, Riddell set furth his translate o the Sang o Solomon.†
  • The Inglisman Joseph Phillip Robson set furth his translate o the Sang o Solomon in 1860.†
  • In the same year, a third translate o the Sang o Solomon wis set furth, tho the name o the translator isna kent. It is seemilar in mony weys tae Riddell's wark.†
  • The Sang o Solomon wis set furth for a fowert time in 1862, bi George Henderson.†
  • Anither unkent translate o the Sang o Solomon kythed at this time foryb the anes telt o abuin, but the year isna kent.†
  • P Hately Waddell gied us his Psalms frae Hebrew intil Scottis in 1871 an sae becam the first Scots translator o ony Biblical beuk tae wirk frae the oreeginal leid text.
  • In 1879, Waddell set furth his Isaiah frae Hebrew intil Scottis. As wi his wark on the Psaums he teuk tent o ither translates in ither leids forby, the Laitin, Greek, Italian, German an Inglis.
  • At the end o his wark The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (1873), James AH Murray includit a translate frae the Inglis o the cutty beuk o Ruth.
  • The Unitit Free Kirk meenister Rev. Thomas Whyte Paterson set furth his translate o Provribs frae the Inglis that he cried Wyse Sayin's o' Solomon in 1917.
  • Henry Paterson Cameron, a Scots chiel that haed flittit tae Australie uised the Inglis Revised Version as the foond o his wark on Genesis in 1921. His translate haed jottins in Scots includit.
  • In 1971, Alex Borrowman's tranlate o Ruth cam oot; tho he himsel haed dee'd the year afore. He uised the modren Inglis New English Bible as the foond o his wark that cam wi jottins, a commentar anent Ruth as weel as ither wark sic as sermons, reddins o services an twa-three Psaums - aw duin in guid modren Scots.

Translates merkit wi † wis commeesiont bi a French chiel cried Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte (1813-1891), nevoy tae Napoleon Bonaparte. He wis born in Ingland an bid for maist o his life thare, an in his studies intil the Inglis leid teuk on an unco interest in byleids an sae on. Ettlin for tae document whit he saw as the diverse byleids o Inglis tae be fund in Breetain (jalousin that thay war deein an wantit documentin afore this wis duin wi), he haed a nummer o scrievers wark on pittin pairts o the Bible ower intae thair ain byleids. The warks that he commeesiont an gaithered wisna set furth, but hauden in gey few nummers as academic texts that no mony fowk kent o. The Scots translates is o varyin quality, maist o thaim is tae some gree based on the "leeterar Scots" o Burns, Scott, Ramsay an ithers raither nor bein based on the leevin speak o the fowk that uised the leid ilka day; this wis tae the maist pairt the affcome o whit we maun nou see as early ettles tae mak a formal register o Scots (beirin in mynd that nae colloquial Inglis translate o the Bible existit at this time, aither). As sic, thay are mair o a cuiriosity an a document o the ettles tae mak a formal strynd o Scots raither nor real representations o 19t Century spoken Scots, ettles tae hain the leid - or muckle less ettles tae gie the fowk a Bible in thair ain vernacular leid.

Forby, see the fremmit airtins ablo that haes links tae some o thir translates online.

See Forby[eedit | eedit soorce]

Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church - ed. FL Cross (1958)
  • How to Read the Old Testament - Etienne Charpentier (1981)
  • Meet the Prophets - A Beginner's Guide to the Books of the Biblical Prophets - John W. Miller (1985 edeetion uised)
  • A History of the Scots Bible: With Selected Texts - Graham Tulloch (1989)

Fremmit Airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]