Ammonia

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Ammonia
Stereo structural formula o ammonia
Baw-an-stick model o the ammonia molecule
Space-fillin model o the ammonia molecule
Names
IUPAC name
Azane
Ither names
Hydrogen nitride

Trihydrogen nitride

Nitro-Sil
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
3DMet {{{value}}}
Beilstein Reference 3587154
ChEBI CHEBI:16134 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1160819 YesY
ChemSpider 217 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.760
EC Nummer 231-635-3
Gmelin Reference 79
KEGG D02916 YesY
MeSH Ammonia
RTECS nummer BO0875000
UNII 5138Q19F1X YesY
UN nummer 1005
Properties
NH3
Molar mass 17.031 g/mol
Appearance Colourless gas
Odour strong pungent odor
Density 0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)
0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 °C)
681.9 kg/m3 at −33.3 °C (liquid)[1]
817 kg/m3 at −80 °C (transparent solid)[2]
Meltin pynt −77.73 °C (−107.91 °F; 195.42 K)
Bylin pynt −33.34 °C (−28.01 °F; 239.81 K)
47% (0 °C)
31% (25 °C)
28% (50 °C)[3]
Solubility soluble in chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol
Vapour pressur 8573 h Pa
Acidity (pKa) 32.5 (−33 °C),[4] 10.5 (DMSO)
Basicity (pKb) 4.75
Refractive index (nD) 1.3327
Viscosity 0.276 cP (-40 °C)
Structur
Molecular shape Trigonal pyramid
Dipole moment 1.42 D
Thermochemistry
Staundart molar
entropy
So298
193 J·mol−1·K−1[5]
Std enthalpy o
formation
ΔfHo298
−46 kJ·mol−1[5]
Hazards
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-bottle.svgGHS-pictogram-acid.svgGHS-pictogram-skull.svgGHS-pictogram-pollu.svg[6]
GHS hazard statements H221, H280, H314, H331, H400[6]
GHS precautionary statements P210, P261, P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310[6]
EU clessification Toxic T Corrosive C Dangerous for the Environment (Naitur) N
R-phrases R10, R23, R34, R50
S-phrases (S1/2), S9, S16, S26, S36/37/39, S45, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heatit afore igneetion can occur. Flash pynt ower 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola ile Health code 3: Short exposur could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash pynt flammable gas (see text)
Explosive leemits 15–28%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
0.015 mL/kg (human, oral)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
50 ppm (25 ppm ACGIH- TLV; 35 ppm STEL)
Relatit compoonds
Ither cations
Phosphine
Arsine
Stibine
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Ammonia or azane is a compoond o nitrogen an hydrogen wi the formula NH3. It is a colourless gas wi a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia contreibutes signeeficantly tae the nutreetional needs o terrestrial organisms bi serving as a precursor tae fuid an fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is an aa a biggin-block for the synthesis o mony pharmaceuticals an is uised in mony commercial cleanin products. Altho in wide uise, ammonia is baith caustic an hazardous. The global industrial production o ammonia for 2012 wis anticipatit tae be 198 million tonnes,[7] a 35% increase ower the estimatit 2006 global output o 146.5 million tonnes.[8]

NH3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressur o 1 atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored unner heich pressur or at law temperatur. Hoosehauld ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution o NH3 in watter. The concentration o such solutions is measured in units o the Baumé scale (density), wi 26 degrees baumé (aboot 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C) bein the teepical heich-concentration commercial product.[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Yost, Don M. (2007). "Ammonia and Liquid Ammonia Solutions". Systematic Inorganic Chemistry. READ BOOKS. p. 132. ISBN 1-4067-7302-6. 
  2. Blum, Alexander (1975). "On crystalline character of transparent solid ammonia". Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids. 24 (4): 277. doi:10.1080/00337577508240819. 
  3. Perry, Dale L.; Phillips, Sidney L. (1995). Handbook of inorganic compounds. CRC Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-8493-8671-3. 
  4. Perrin, D. D., Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution; 2nd Ed., Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1982.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A22. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ammonia. Retrieved on 2013-07-20.
  7. Ceresana. "Market Study Ammonia". Ceresana. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  8. Max Appl (2006). Ammonia, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_143.pub2. 
  9. "Ammonium hydroxide physical properties" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 2007-11-27.