Pas-de-Calais

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Pas-de-Calais
Depairtment

Coat of arms
Location o Pas-de-Calais in Fraunce
Coordinates: 50°57′N 1°51′E / 50.950°N 1.850°E / 50.950; 1.850
Kintra Fraunce
Region Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Prefectur Arras
Subprefecturs

Béthune
Boulogne-sur-Mer
Calais
Lens
Montreuil

Saint-OmerSaint-Omer
Government
 • Preses o the General Cooncil Dominique Dupilet
Area1
 • Total 6,671 km2 (2,576 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Total 1,453,387
 • Rank 7t
 • Density 220/km2 (560/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Depairtment number 62
Arrondissements 7
Cantons 77
Communes 894
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, an lakes, ponds, an glaciers lairger than 1 km2

Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation: [pɑ d(ə) kalɛ]) is a depairtment in northren Fraunce. Its name is the French equivalent o the Strait o Dover, which it borders.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Inhabitit syne prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region wis populatit in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks an the Alemanni. Durin the fowert an fift centuries, the Roman practice o cooptin Germanic tribes tae provide militar an defense services alang the route frae Boulogne tae Cologne creatit a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persistit till the aicht century.

Saxon colonization intae the region frae the fift tae the aicht centuries likely extendit the linguistic border somewha sooth an wast so that bi the nint century maist inhabitants north o the line atween Béthune an Berck spoke a dialect o Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants tae the sooth spoke Picard, a variety o Romance dialects.

This linguistic border is still evident the day in the toponyms an patronyms o the region. Beginnin in the nint century, the linguistic border began a steady muive tae north an the east, an bi the end o the 15t century Romance dialects haed completely displacit those o Dutch.

Pas-de-Calais is ane o the oreeginal 83 depairtments creatit durin the French Revolution on March 4, 1790. It was created from parts of the umwhile provinces o Calaisis, umwhile Inglis, Boulonnais, Ponthieu an Artois, this last umwhile pairt o the Spainyie Netherlands.

Some o the costliest battles o Warld War I wur focht in the region. The Vimy Memorial commemorates the Battle o Vimy Ridge an is Canadae's maist important memorial tae its fallen sodgers.

Pas-de-Calais wis the target o Operation Fortitude an aw durin Warld War II, which wis an Allied plan tae deceive the Germans that the invasion o Europe at D-Day wis tae occur here, rather than in Normandy.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceeties > 10,000 inhabitants

Pas-de-Calais is in the current region o Nord-Pas de Calais an is surroondit bi the depairtments o Nord an Somme, the Inglis Channel, an the North Sea.

Its principal touns are, on the coast, Calais an Boulogne-sur-Mer, an in Artois, Lens, Liévin, Arras, an Saint-Omer.

The principal rivers are the follaein:

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The economy o the department wis lang dependent on minin, primarily the coal mines. Housomeivver, syne Warld War II, the economy haes become mair diversifee'd.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The inhabitants o the depairtment are cried Pas-de-Calaisiens.

Pas-de-Calais is ane o the maist hivily populatit depairtments o Fraunce, an yet it haes nae lairge ceeties. Calais haes anerlie aboot 80,000 inhabitants, follaeed closely bi Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens an Liévin. The remainin population is primarily concentratit alang the border wi the depairtment o Nord in the minin destrict, whare a string o sma touns constitutes an urban aurie wi a population o aboot 1.2 million. The center an sooth o the depairtment are mair rural, but still quite hivily populatit, wi mony veelages an sma touns.

Although the depairtment saw some o the hiviest fechtin o Warld War I, its population reboondit quickly efter baith warld wars. Housomeivver, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Although Pas-de-Calais is ane o the maist populous depairtments o Fraunce, it did no contain a university till 1992.

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Arrondissements o Pas-de-Calais