Krasnodar

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Krasnodar (Scots)
Краснодар (Roushie)
-  City[citation needit]  -
Krasnodar attraction.jpg
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location o Krasnodar Krai in Roushie
Krasnodar is located in Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Location o Krasnodar in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 45°02′N 38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967
Coat of Arms of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai).png
Flag of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai) (2006).png
Coat o airms
Banner
City Day Last nan-wirkin day o September[citation needit]
Admeenistrative status (as o December 2001)
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai[1]
Admeenistratively subordinatit tae Ceety o Krasnodar[2]
Admeenistrative center o Krasnodar Krai,[1] Ceety o Krasnodar[2]
Municipal status (as o Februar 2012)
Urban okrug Krasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Admeenistrative centre o Krasnodar Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needit] Vladimir Yevlanov[4]
Representative body Ceety Duma[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
744,995 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 17th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
Founded 12 Januar 1794[citation needit]
City status since 1867[citation needit]
Previous names Yekaterinodar (until 1920)[citation needit]
Postal code(s) 350000–350090[citation needit]
Dialin code(s) +7 861[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid

Krasnodar (Roushie: Краснодар; IPA: [krəsnɐˈdar]) is a ceety an the admeenistrative center o Krasnodar Krai, Roushie, locatit on the Kuban River aboot 148 kilometers (92 mi) northeast o the Black Sea port o Novorossiysk. Population: 744,995 (2010 Census preliminary results);[5] 646,175 (2002 Census);[7] 620,516 (1989 Census).[8]

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

It wis foondit on 12 Januar 1794 (Gregorian calendar) as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р). The oreeginal name meant "Catherine's Gift" simultaneously in recognition o Catherine the Great's grant o land in the Kuban region tae the Black Sea Cossacks (later the Kuban Cossacks) an in recognition o Saunt Catherine, the Martyr, who is considered tae be the patron o the ceety. Efter the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar wis renamit Krasnodar (December 1920). Thare is meanin for the new communist name o the ceety: Krasno- (Красно-), meanin 'red' (especially relevant considerin the poleetical atmosphere o the time); and -dar (-дар), meanin 'gift'. Thus, the ceety's name means red gift (i.e. 'gift o the reds').

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The oreegin o the ceety stairts wi a fortress built bi the Cossacks in order tae defend imperial borders an claim Roushie awnership ower Circassie, which wis contestit bi the Ottoman Empire. In the first hauf o the 19t century Yekaterinodar grew intae a busy center o the Kuban Cossacks. It wis grantit toun status in 1867. Bi 1888, aboot 45,000 fowk livit in the ceety an it became a vital trade center o soothren Roushie. In 1897, an obelisk commemoratin the twa hunder year history o Kuban Cossack Host wis built in Yekaterinodar.

Durin the Roushie Ceevil War the ceety chyngit haunds several times atween the Red Airmy an Volunteer Airmy, mony Kuban Cossacks wur committit anti-Bolsheviks who supportit the White Muivement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the ceety in 10 Aprile 1918, anerlie tae be killed a week later when an airtillery shell fired bi Bolsheviks blew up the fermhoose he wis uisin as his heidquairters.

Durin World War II, Krasnodar wis occupee'd bi the German Airmy atween 12 August 1942 an 12 Februar 1943. The ceety sustained hivy damage in the fechtin but wis rebuilt an renovatit efter the war.

In the simmer o 1943, the Soviets began trials, includin o their awn citizens, for collusion wi the Nazis an participation in war crimes. The first such trial wis held at Krasnodar on 14–17 Julie 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronooncit aicht daith sentences, which wur summarily conductit in the ceety square in front o a croud o aboot thirty thoosan fowk.

Coat o airms[eedit | eedit soorce]

The coat o airms o Yekaterinodar wis introducit in 1841 bi the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The ryal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Roushie for Catherine II). It depicts the date ceety wis foondit an aw, the Imperial double heidit eagle (seembolizin Tsar's patronage o Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa o a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, an flags wi letters "E", "P", "A", an "N" staundin for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I an Nicholas I. Yellae starns aroond the shield seembolizit 59 Black Sea stanitsas aroond the ceety.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Admeenistratively, alang wi twinty-nine rural localities, it is incorporatit as the Ceety o Krasnodar—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[2] Municipally, the Ceety o Krasnodar is incorporatit as Krasnodar Urban Okrug.[3]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unner the Köppen climate classification Krasnodar haes a humid subtropical climate climate (Cfa).

Winters are cauld an damp, wi unstable snaw cover. The average temperatur in Januar, the aurie's cauldest month, is 32 °F (0 °C). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly. Temperaturs can exceed 68 °F (20 °C) for a few days, but temperaturs belaw −4 °F (−20 °C) are no uncommon for Krasnodar as the ceety is no protectit bi muntains frae cauld waves. Summers are typically hot with a July average of 75.2 °F (24.0 °C).

The ceety receives 28.26 inches (718 mm) o precipitation annually, fairly spread throughoot the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar aurie. Extreme temperaturs hae rangit frae −28.66 to 104 °F (−33.70 to 40.00 °C), recordit on 23 Januar 2006 an 15 August 2006, respectively.

Climate data for Krasnodar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
22.6
(72.7)
28.8
(83.8)
33.8
(92.8)
32.8
(91.0)
37.2
(99.0)
40.0
(104.0)
40.0
(104.0)
38.5
(101.3)
33.3
(91.9)
27.4
(81.3)
22.2
(72.0)
40.0
(104.0)
Average heich °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
4.7
(40.5)
9.8
(49.6)
17.6
(63.7)
22.5
(72.5)
26.8
(80.2)
29.7
(85.5)
29.9
(85.8)
24.5
(76.1)
17.7
(63.9)
10.0
(50.0)
5.3
(41.5)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
1.1
(34.0)
5.4
(41.7)
12.1
(53.8)
17.0
(62.6)
21.2
(70.2)
24.0
(75.2)
23.6
(74.5)
18.4
(65.1)
12.2
(54.0)
6.0
(42.8)
1.9
(35.4)
11.9
(53.4)
Average laich °C (°F) −3.7
(25.3)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.6
(33.1)
6.8
(44.2)
11.4
(52.5)
15.8
(60.4)
17.9
(64.2)
17.3
(63.1)
12.6
(54.7)
7.0
(44.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
6.8
(44.2)
Record laich °C (°F) −33.7
(−28.7)
−32.2
(−26.0)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−6.1
(21.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.0
(41.0)
9.0
(48.2)
5.4
(41.7)
−2.2
(28.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−20
(−4.0)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−33.7
(−28.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 64
(2.52)
52
(2.05)
54
(2.13)
50
(1.97)
67
(2.64)
87
(3.43)
54
(2.13)
44
(1.73)
43
(1.69)
57
(2.24)
71
(2.8)
77
(3.03)
718
(28.27)
humidity 84 79 75 70 70 70 66 64 70 77 83 85 74
Avg. rainy days 11 9 13 14 14 13 9 8 9 10 13 14 137
Avg. snawy days 9 8 5 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 3 7 32.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.3 87.0 136.4 180.0 248.0 276.0 303.8 285.2 237.0 173.6 87.0 55.8 2,141.1
Source no. 1: Pogoda.ru.net[9]
Source no. 2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[10]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Leet o twin touns an sister ceeties in Roushie

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Krasnodar haes five sister ceeties, as designatit bi Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI):

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Reference Information #20-2969/11-03
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Law #670-OZ
  4. [1]
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Krasnodar)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  10. "Climatological Information for Krasnodar, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 

Sources[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Департамент по взаимодействию с правоохранительными органами администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №20-2969/11-03 от 9 декабря 2011 г. «Выписка из реестра административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Public Safety Organs of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #20-2969/11-03 of December 9, 2001 Excerpt from the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №670-КЗ от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Краснодар и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2435-КЗ от 3 февраля 2012 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №37–38, 13 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #670-OZ of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2435-KZ of February 3, 2012 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]