Sukhumi

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Sukhumi
სოხუმი, Аҟәа
Sokhumi, Akwa

Seal
location of Sukhumi within Abkhazia
Sukhumi is located in Georgia (country)
Sukhumi
Location o Sukhumi in Georgie
Coordinates: 43°00′12″N 41°00′55″E / 43.00333°N 41.01528°E / 43.00333; 41.01528
Kintra  Georgie
Partially recognized country  Abkhazie[1]
Government
 • Mayor Alias Labakhua[2]
Highest elevation 140 m (460 ft)
Lowest elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 62,914
Time zone MSK (UTC+4)
Area code(s) +7 840 22x-xx-xx

Sukhumi (Abkhaz: Аҟəа, Aqwa; Georgie: სოხუმი, Sokhumi; Roushie: Сухум or Сухуми‎, Sukhum or Sukhumi) is the caipital o Abkhazie, a disputit region on the Black Sea coast. The ceety suffered hivily durin the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict in the early 1990s.

Namin[eedit | eedit soorce]

In Abkhaz, the ceety is kent as Аҟəа (Aqwa) which accordin tae native tradition signifies water.[3]

In Georgian, the ceety is kent as სოხუმი (Sokhumi) or აყუ (Aqu),[4] in Megrelian as აყუჯიხა (Aqujikha),[5] an in Roushie as Сухум (Sukhum) or Сухуми (Sukhumi). The etymology o the form Sokhumi is disputit. The ceety wis earlier kent in Turkis as Suhum-Kale, which can be read tae mean 'water-sand fortress'.[6][7] Alternatively, it haes been proposed that the ceety haed already afore been kent as Tskhumi in Georgian, an that aw these forms (includin the Turkis) fynd their oreegin herein. Tskhumi in turn then is derived frae the Svan leid wird for 'hot'[8], or the Georgian word for 'hornbeam tree'. The competin etymologies hae been uised as putative evidence in the argument ower the ethnicity o Sukhumi's historical inhabitants.

The endin -i in the abuin forms represents the Georgian nominative-suffix. The toun wis initially offeecially described in Roushie as Сухум (Sukhum), till 16 August 1936 when this wis chynged tae Сухуми (Sukhumi). This remained so till 4 December 1992, when the Supreme Cooncil o Abkhazie restored the "oreeginal" version[9], that wis approved in Roushie in autumn 2008[10], even though Сухуми is an aa still being uised.

In Inglis, the maist common form the day is Sukhumi, although Sokhumi is uised as well bi some sources, includin Encyclopædia Britannica[11] and MSN Encarta.[12]

Historically, Sukhumi wis first cawed Διοσκουριάς (Dioskurias) bi the Greeks, then frae the time o Emperor o Rome Augustus onwards Σεβαστούπολις (Sebastopolis)[13] till it became Suhum-kale unner the Ottomans.

General information[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sukhumi is locatit on a wide bay o the eastren coast o the Black Sea an serves as a port, rail junction an a holiday resort. It is kent for its beaches, sanatoriums, mineral-water spas an semitropical climate. Sukhumi is an aa an important air link for Abkhazie as the Sukhumi Dranda Airport is locatit nearbi the ceety. Sukhumi contains a number o sma-tae-medium size hotels servin chiefly the Roushie tourists. Sukhumi botanical garden wis established in 1840, ane o the auldest botanical gardens in the Caucasus.

The ceety haes a number o research institutes, the Abkhazian State University an the Sukhumi Branch o the Tbilisi State University (currently functionin in Tbilisi). In Soviet times, it contained a renouned ape breedin station. Frae 1945 tae 1954 the ceety's electron pheesics laboratory wis involved in the Soviet program tae develop nuclear weapons.

The ceety is a member o the International Black Sea Club.[14]

Twin touns - sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Abkhazie's status is disputit. It considers itself tae be an independent state, but this is recognised bi anly a few ither kintras. The Georgie govrenment an maist o the warld's ither states consider Abkhazia de jure a pairt o Georgia's territory. In Georgie's offeecial subdiveesion it is an autonomous republic, whose govrenment sits in exile in Tbilisi.
  2. Алиас Лабахуа вступил в должность мэра столицы (Alias Labakhua takes office of the capital's mayor), 18.09.2007 (Roushie)
  3. Colarusso, John. "More Pontic: Further Etymologies between Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian". p. 54. Retrieved 2009-08-22. 
  4. http://www.abkhazworld.com/Pdf/Abkhaz_Loans_in_Megrelian_Chirikba.pdf, p. 65
  5. Otar Kajaia, 2001–2004, Megrelian-Georgian Dictionary (entry aq'ujixa).
  6. Goltz, Thomas (2009 (2006)). "4. An Abkhazian Interlude". Georga Diary (Expanded Edition ed.). Armonk, New York / London, England: M.E. Sharpe. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7656-2416-1. 
  7. [1] (Roushie)
  8. Room, A. (2005), Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London, ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, p. 361
  9. [2] (Roushie)
  10. Абхазию и Южную Осетию на картах в РФ выкрасят в "негрузинские" цвета
  11. "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 6, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [3]
  12. "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encarta. Retrieved November 6, 2006: [4]
  13. Hewitt, George (1998) The Abkhazians: a handbook St. Martin's Press, New York, p. 62, ISBN 0-312-21975-X
  14. International Black Sea Club, members
  15. "Podolsk sister cities". Translate.google.com. Retrieved 2010-07-04.