Hadera

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Hadera
Ebreu transcription(s)
 • Ebreu חֲדֵרָה
 • ISO 259 Ḥdera
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabic الخضيرة

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Hadera is located in Israel
Hadera
Hadera
Coordinates: 32°27′N 34°55′E / 32.450°N 34.917°E / 32.450; 34.917
Destrict Haifa
Foondit 1890
Government
 • Type Ceety (frae 1952)
 • Heid o Municipality Tzvika Gendelman
Area
 • Total 53,000 dunams (53 km2 or 20 sq mi)
Population (2009)[1]
 • Total 80,200
Name meaning Green (in Arabic)
Website www.hadera.muni.il

Hadera (Ebreu: חֲדֵרָה‎‎, Ḥadera; Arabic: الخضيرة‎, Al-Ḫuḍayraḧ) is a ceety locatit in the Haifa Destrict o Israel approximately 45 kilometers (28.0 mi) frae the major ceeties o Tel Aviv an Haifa. The ceety is locatit alang 45 kilometers (28.0 mi) aff the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain. The ceety haes a population o 80,200 which includes a heich proportion o immigrants syne 1990, notably frae Ethiopie an the Soviet Union.[1]

Hadera wis established in 1891 as a farmin colony bi members o the Zionist group, Hovevei Zion, frae Lithuanie an Latvie. Bi 1948, it wis a regional center wi a population o 11,800. It wis declared a ceety in 1952. Wi an aurie o jurisdiction o 53,000 dunams.[2]

Several projects are unner wey tae improve the quality o life in Hadera, includin regeneratin the ceety center, constructin a hie-tech business pairk, and biggin the warld's lairgest desalination plant.[2]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early years[eedit | eedit soorce]

Hadera wis foondit in 1891, in the early days modren Zionism bi Eastren European immigrants frae Lithuanie an Latvie on land purchased bi Yehoshua Hankin, kent as the Redeemer o the Valley.[2][3] The land wis purchased frae Christian effendi Selim Khuri. This wis the lairgest purchase o land in Palestine bi a Zionist group, although the land wis o law quality an maistly swampland. The anerlie inhabitants prior tae the purchase wur a few families raisin water buffaloes an sellin reeds.[4] The toun mey derive its name frae the Arabic wird khadra, meanin "green" in reference tae the wild weeds which covered the mairshes on which the toun is built.[3]

The first settlers lived in a hoose kent as the Khan near Hadera's main synagogue.[5] Initially, Hadera wos a lonely ootpost o 10 families an 4 guards. In its early years, housomeivver, the toun haed issues wi land awnership haein drained the swamps wi the aid o Egyptian wirkers sent tae them bi Baron Edmond de Rothschild.[6]

Auld tombstanes in the local cemetery reveal that oot o a population o 540, 210 dee'd o malaria.[7] Relations atween the residents o Hadera an Bedouins wur poor an guardin o the field wis designatit tae the HaShomer organisation. Bi the early twintiet century, the toun haed become a regional economic center.[2] Land disputes in the aurie went away till the 1930s, bi which time, the population haed grown tae 2,002 in 1931.[3][4] Free schoolin wis introduced in the ceety in 1937 in aw schools apairt frae the Histadrut school.[8]

After 1948[eedit | eedit soorce]

Hadera's Great Synagogue

Hadera's population began tae grow dramatically efter Israeli unthirldom in 1948 as immigrants flocked tae the kintra. Includit in the immigrants tae the ceety wur no anerlie Roushie an ither European immigrants but an aa 40 Yemenite families.[7] In 1952, Hadera wis declared a ceety,[2] an in 1953, Israel's first paper mill opened in the ceety. Sponsored bi investors frae athin Israel as well as frae the Unitit States, Brazil, an Australie, the mill wis designed tae meet aw o Israel's paper needs.[9] It wis an aa at this time that the Givat Olga neighborhuid wis constructit on the coast, an Beit Eliezer in the east o the ceety.[2]

Frae the 1990s[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety grew dramatically durin the 1990s as it absorbed lairge numbers o Roushie an Ethiopian immigrants.[2][3] Hadera, considered a safe place bi its inhabitants, wis joltit bi several acts o terrorism, includin a suicide bomber who blew hissel up at a falafel staund on October 26, 2005, killin five ceevilians.[10] Housomeivver, syne the construction o the nearbi Wast Bank barrier, the frequency o such incidents haes dropped drastically. On August 4, 2006, three rockets fired bi Hezbollah hit Hadera. Hadera is 50 miles (80 km) sooth o the Lebanese border an marked the farthest point inside Israel hit bi Hezbollah.[11]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Hadera is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 2,000 Residents". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010-30-06. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 "New Urbanism, Israeli Style". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Hadera". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Avneri, Aryeh L. (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-Settlement and the Arabs, 1878-1948. Transaction Publishers. p. 93. ISBN 0878559647. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  5. Jacobs, Daniel; Eber, Shirley; Silvani, Fransesca (1998). Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 1858282489. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  6. Gilbert, Martin (1998). Israel, a History. Morrow. p. 9. ISBN 0688123627. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Winter, Dave (1999). Israel Handbook. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 532. ISBN 1900949482. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  8. Sternhell, Zeev (1999). The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State. Princeton University Press. p. 255. ISBN 0691009678. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  9. "First Paper Mill Opened in Israel; Plant at Hadera is Expected to Help Nation Cut Currency Gap $1,000,000 a Year". New York Times. 1953-12-18. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  10. "Five die in Israel market bombing". BBC News. 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  11. "For first time: Hizbullah targets Hadera area". 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  Unknown parameter |source= ignored (help)
  12. "Charlotte Sister Cities Worldwide - Hadera". Retrieved 2008-11-30.