Gagauzie

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Găgăuzia
Gagauz Yeri
Гагаузия
Banner Seal
(Banner) (Seal)
Gagauzia map.svg
Caipital (an lairgest ceety) Comrat
Offeecial leid Gagauz, Moldovan, Roushie
Govrenment 
 - Govrenor
 -  Chairman o the Fowkassembly
Parliamentary seestem
Mihail Formuzal
Ana Harlamenco  
Aurie
 - Tot

1,832 km2 km²
707 sq mi
Population
 - 2010 Estimate
 
160,700
Foondin
 - Creatit
23 December 1994
Siller Moldovan leu (MDL)
Time zone UTC +2, Simmer: UTC +3
Naitional anthem Tarafim

Gagauzie (Gagauz: Gagauziya or Gagauz Yeri; Romanie: Găgăuzia; Roushie: Гагаузия‎ ), formally kent as the Autonomous Territorial Unit o Gagauzie (Gagauz Yeri) (Gagauz: Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauz Yeri, Romanie: Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia, Roushie: Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия / Avtonomnoe territorial'noe obrazovanie Gagauziya), is an autonomous region o Moldovae. Its name comes frae the wird, "Gagauz", which in turn maist likely comes frae the name, Gok-oguz, which refers tae descendants o the Oghuz tribe o Turkey.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

According to some theories the Gagauz people descend from the Seljuq Turks that settled in Dobruja, or from Pechenegs, Uz (Oghuz) and Cuman (Kipchak) people that followed the Anatolian Seljuq Sultan Izzeddin Keykavus II (1236–1276). More specifically, one clan of Oghuz Turks migrated to the Balkans during the inter-tribal conflicts with other Turks. This Oghuz Turk clan converted from Islam to Orthodox Christianity after settling in the Eastern Balkans (in Bulgaria) and were called Gagauz Turks.[citation needit] A large group of the Gagauz later left Bulgaria and settled in southern Bessarabia, along with a group of ethnic Bulgarians.

According to other theories Gagauz are descendants of linguistically Turkified Bulgarians.[1] In the official Gagauz museum, a plaque mentions that one of the two main theories is that they descend from the Bulgars.

Roushie Empire[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1812, Bessarabie, previously the eastern half of the Principality o Moldavie, became part of the Russian Empire, and Nogai tribes that inhabited several villages in south Bessarabia (or Budjak) were forced to leave. Between 1812 and 1846, Russians settled the Gagauz people from what is nowadays eastern Bulgaria (which remained under Ottoman Empire) to the orthodox Bessarabia, mainly in the settlements vacated by the Nogai tribes. They settled there in parallel with Bessarabian Bulgarians in Avdarma, Comrat, Congaz, Tomai, Cişmichioi, and other former Nogai villages. Some Gagauz were also settled in the part of the Principality of Moldavia that did not come under Russian control in 1812, but within several years village by village moved to the compact area they inhabit today in the south of Bessarabia.

With the exception of a five-day de facto independence in the winter of 1906, when a peasant uprising declared an autonomous Republic of Comrat, Gagauzians have been ruled by the Russian Empire (1812–1917), Romania (1918–1940 and 1941–1944), the Soviet Union (1940–1941 and 1944–1991), and Moldova (1917–1918 and 1991 to date).

USSR[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauz nationalism remained an intellectual movement during the 1980s, but strengthened by the end of the decade, as the Soviet Union began to embrace democratic ideals. In 1988, activists from the local intelligentsia aligned with other ethnic minorities to create a movement known as the "Gagauz People". A year later, the "Gagauz People" held its first assembly in which a resolution was passed to demand the creation an autonomous territory in southern Moldova, with the city of Comrat as its capital. The Gagauzian national movement intensified when Romanian was accepted as the official language of the Republic of Moldova in August 1989, replacing Russian, the official language of the USSR. A part of the multiethnic population of southern Moldova regarded this decision with concern, precipitating a lack of confidence in the central government in Chişinău. The Gagauz were also worried about the implications for them if Moldova reunited with Romania, as seemed likely at the time. In August 1990, Comrat declared itself an autonomous republic, but the Moldovan government annulled the declaration as unconstitutional. At that time, Stepan Topal emerged as the leader of the Gagauz national movement.

Independent Moldovae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Map o Gagauzie.
Walcome tae Gagauzie sign

Support for the Soviet Union remained high, with a referendum in March 1991 returning an almost unanimous vote in favour of remaining part of the USSR. Many Gagauz supported the Moscow coup attempt in August 1991, and Gagauzia declared itself independent on 19 August 1991, followed in September by Transnistria, thus further straining relations with Chişinău. However, when the Moldovan parliament voted on whether Moldova should become independent on 27 August 1991, six of the twelve Gagauz deputies in Moldovan parliament voted in favour, while the other six did not participate. Eventually, the Moldovan government toned down its pro-Romanian stance and paid more attention to minority rights[citation needit].

In February 1994, President Mircea Snegur promised the Gagauz autonomy, but he was against outright independence. He was also opposed to the suggestion that Moldova become a federal state made up of three republics, Moldova, Gagauzia, and Transnistria.

In 1994, the Parliament of Moldova awarded to "the people of Gagauzia" (through the adoption of the new Constitution of Moldova) the right of "external sel-determination". On 23 December 1994, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova accepted the "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia" (Gagauz: Gagauz Yeri), resolving the dispute peacefully. This date is now a Gagauz holiday. Gagauzia is now a "national-territorial autonomous unit" with three official languages, Romanian, Gagauz, and Russian.

Three cities and twenty-three communes were included in the Autonomous Gagauz Territory: all localities with over 50% Gagauz, and those localities with between 40% and 50% Gagauz which expressed their desire to be included as a result of referendums to determine Gagauzia's borders. In 1995, Georgi Tabunshik was elected to serve as the Governor (Romanian: Guvernator, Gagauz: Bashkan) of Gagauzia for a four-year term, as were the deputies of the local parliament, "The People's Assembly"(Gagauz:"Halk Toplushu"), with Petr Pashali as chairman.

Dmitrii Croitor won the 1999 Governor elections and began to make use of the rights granted to the Governor by the 1994 agreement. The central authorities of Moldova proved unwilling to accept the results initiating a lengthy stand-off between the autonomy and Chişinău. Finally Croitor resigned in 2002 due to the pressure from the Moldovan government which accused him of abuse of authority, relations with the separatist authorities of Transnistria and other charges. The central electoral commission of Gagauzia did not register Croitor as a candidate for the post of the Governor in the subsequent elections and Gheorgi Tabunshik was elected in what was described as unfair elections.[2][3]

The present Govrenor o Gagauzie is Mihail Formuzal (frae 2006).

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauzia is dividit intae three destricts. It is split intae fower enclaves. The main, central enclave includes the ceeties Comrat an Ceadîr-Lunga an is dividit intae twa destricts wi those ceeties servin as admeenistrative centers. The seicont lairgest enclave is locatit aroond the ceety o Vulcăneşti, while twa smawer enclaves are the veelages o Copceac an Carbalia. The veelage o Carbalia faws unner admeenistration o Vulcanesti, while Copceac is pairt o Ceadir-Lunga destrict.

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauzie consists o ane municipality, twa ceeties, an twinty-three communes containin a total o thirty-twa localities.[4]

Offeecial name Gagauz name % Gagauzians
Comrat (municipality) 72.8%
Ceadîr-Lunga (city) Çadır-Lunga 73.7%
Vulcăneşti (city)
Vulcăneşti, loc. st. c. f.
69.4%
22.5%
Avdarma 94.2%
Baurci Baurçi 97.9%
Beşalma 96.7%
Beşghioz
(Beş-Ghioz)
Beşgöz 93.0%
Bugeac Bucak 61.8%
Carbalia Kırbaalı 70.2%
Offeecial name Gagauz name % Gagauzians
Cazaclia Kazayak 96.5%
Chioselia Rusă (Chioselia Mică) Köseli Rus 25.2%
Chiriet-Lunga Kiriyet-Lunga 92.6%
Chirsova Kirsova 45.6%
Cioc-Maidan Çokmeydan 93.1%
Cişmichioi (Cişmechioi) Çeşmeköy 94.4%
Congaz Kongaz 96.1%
Congazcicul de Sus (Congazul-Mic)
Congazcicul de Jos
Duduleşti
73.4%
87.2%
4.4%
Copceac
(Tatar-Copceac)
Kıpçak 95.0%
Offeecial name Gagauz name % Gagauzians
Cotovscoe (Cârlăneni) Kırlannar 95.4%
Dezghingea (Dezghinge) Dezgincä 94.5%
Etulia
Etulia Nouă
Etulia, loc. st. c. f.
92.7%
83.1%
94.5%
Ferapontievca (Feraponteanca) 28.0%
Gaidar (Gaidari) Haydar 96.5%
Joltai (Djoltai) Coltay 96.0%
Svetlîi (Deneviţa)
Alexeevca (Alexeeni)
35.4%
33.5%
Tomai Tomay 95.1%

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The autonomy of Gagauzia is guaranteed by the Moldovan constitution and regulated by the 1994 Gagauz Autonomy Act. If Moldova decided to unite with Romania, Gagauzia would have the right of self-determination.[5][6] The Gagauzian People's Assembly (Adunarea Populară; Gagauz: Halk Topluşu) has a mandate for lawmaking powers within its own jurisdiction. This includes laws on education, culture, local development, budgetary and taxation issues, social security, and questions of territorial administration. The People's Assembly also has two special powers: it may participate in the formulation of Moldova's internal and foreign policy; and, should central regulations interfere with the jurisdiction of Gagauz-Yeri, it has the right of appeal to Moldova's Constitutional Court.

The highest official of Gagauzia, who heads the executive power structure, is the Governor of Gagauzia (Romanian: Guvernatorul Găgăuziei; Gagauz: Bashkan). He or she is elected by popular suffrage for a four-year term. He has power over all public administrative bodies of Gagauzia, and is also a member of the Government of the Republic of Moldova. Eligibility for governorship requires fluency in the Gagauz language, Moldovan citizenship, and a minimum age of 35 years.

Permanent executive power in Gagauz-Yeri is exercised by the Executive Committee (Comitetul Executiv or Bakannik Komiteti). Its members are appointed by the Governor, or by a simple majority vote in the Assembly at its first session. The Committee ensures the application of the laws of the Republic of Moldova and those of the Assembly of Gagauz-Yeri.

As pairt o its autonomy, Gagauzie haes its awn polis force.[7]

Gagauz Khalky is a umwhile Gagauz separatist poleetical pairty, nou ootlawed.

Elections[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the last three elections AEI increase o 872.4%

Parliament elections results
Year AEI PCRM
2010 23.44% 13,380 59.97% 34,224
Julie 2009 11.32% 6,482 77.78% 44,549
Aprile 2009 2.43% 1,376 63.69% 36,094
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of 28 November 2010 Parliament o Moldovae election results in Gagauzie
Pairties an coalitions Votes % +/−
Pairty o Communists o the Republic o Moldovae 34,224 59.97 −17.81
Democratic Pairty o Moldovae 9,115 15,97 +10.09
Humanist Pairty o Moldovae 3,722 6.52 +6.52
Social Democratic Pairty 3,686 6.46 -3.41
Leeberal Democratic Pairty o Moldovae 3,581 6.27 +4.99
Ither Pairty 2,770 4.81 -0.38
Total (turnoot 51.36%) 57,596 100.00


Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The base of the Gagauzian economy is agriculture, particularly viticulture. The main export products are wine, sunflower oil, non-alcoholic beverages, wool, leather and textiles. There are twelve wineries, processing over 400,000 tonnes annually. There are also two oil factories, two carpet factories, one meat factory, and one non-alcoholic beverages factory.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are 451 kilometers o roads in Gagauzie, o which 82% are pavit. Turkey loaned Moldovae 35 million dollars tae impruive Gagauzie's road netwirk.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae 1 Januar 2011 census, Gagauzie haed a population o 160,700, o which 40,4% urban an 59.6% rural population.

  • Births (2010): 2042 (12.7 per 1000)
  • Daiths (2010): 1868 (11.6 per 1000)
  • Growth Rate (2010): 174 (1.1 per 1000)

Ethnic composition[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the 2004 census results, the ethnic brakdoun in Gagauzie wis:[8]

Ethnic group Population Percent o total
Gagauz 127,835 82.1%
Bulgaries 8,013 5.1%
Moldovans 7,481 4.8%
Roushies 5,941 3.8%
Ukrainians 4,919 3.2%
Romanies 38 0.0%
Ithers 1,409 0.9%

Releegion[eedit | eedit soorce]

There is an ongoin controversy ower whether Romanies an Moldovans are the same ethnic group. At the census, ivery citizen coud anerlie declare ane naitionality. Consequently, ane coud no declare anesel baith Moldovan an Romanie. The combined figur for Moldovans (Romanies) is 7,519 (4.85%).

Cultur an education[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gagauzia haes fifty-five schuils, the Comrat Pedagogical College (heich schuil+twa years ower heich school), and Comrat State University (Universitatea de Stat din Comrat[9]). Turkey financit the creation o a Turkis cultural centre (Türk İşbirliği Ve Kalkınma İdaresi Başkanlığı) an a Turkis library (Atatürk Kütüphanesi). In the veelage o Beşalma, there is a Gagauz historical an ethnographical museum established bi Dmitrii Kara Coban.

Despite declarin Gagauz as the naitional leid o the Autonomy, the local authorities dae no provide ony full Gagauz-teachin schuil, maist o those are Roushie-leid as opposed tae inner Moldovan full Romanie leid education.[10] Though introducin tae aw fower uisual for schuil leids (Roushie, Romanie, Inglis or French, Gagauz), the local ane stays in the last place.[11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Стойков, Руси. Селища и демографски облик в Североизточна България и Южна Добруджа, Известия на Варненското археологическо дружество, т. ХV, 1964, с. 98.
  2. Information on previous elections of Governor of Gagauz ATU (Inglis) (Roushie) (Romanie))
  3. Moldova Strategic Conflict Assessment (SCA), Stuart Hensel, Economist Intelligence Unit.
  4. (Romanie) Organic Law No. 292-XIV (see Annex 4), Republic of Moldova, 19 February 1999.
  5. East - West Working Group. Levente Benkö. Autonomy in Gagauzia: A Precedent for Central and Eastern Europe?
  6. "Opinion on the Law on Modification and Addition in the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova in Particular Concerning the Status of Gagauzia". Council of Europe. 2002. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved 2007-11-24. 
  7. (Romanie) Moldovan law on the special legal status o Gagauzie
  8. 2004 census results
  9. Comrat, str. Galaţan, 17, tel: (0-298) 2-43-45
  10. http://meridian-info.com/v2/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=490&Itemid=55&lang=russian
  11. http://www.gagauzi.ru/2009-09-22-17-54-41/65-panorama/75-2009-09-23-00-50-30

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Shabashov A.V., 2002, Odessa, Astroprint, "Gagauzes: terms of kinship system and origin of the people", (Шабашов А.В., "Гагаузы: система терминов родства и происхождение народа")
  • Chinn, Jeff; Steven D. Roper (March 1998). "Territorial autonomy in Gagauzia". Nationalities Papers 26 (1): 87–101. doi:10.1080/00905999808408552. 

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]