Chemnitz ([ˈkɛmnɪts] ( listen); Upper Sorbian: Kamjenica, Czech: Saská Kamenice; kent frae 1953 tae 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt) is the third-lairgest ceety o the Free State o Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz is an independent ceety which is no pairt o ony destrict an seat o the govrenment region Direktionsbezirk Chemnitz. Locatit in the northren fuithills o the Ore Muntains, it is a pairt o the Saxon triangle metropolitan aurie comprisin 3.5 million fowk. The ceety's economy is based on the service sector an manufacturin industry. The Chemnitz University o Technology haes aroond 10,000 students an is the centre o scientific life.
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Chemnitz is named efter the river Chemnitz, a sma tributary o the Zwickauer Mulde. The wird "Chemnitz" is frae the Sorbian leid an means "stany brook". In German, "Chemnitz" is pronoonced [ˈkɛmnɪts]. It is kent in Czech as Saská Kamenice.
An early Slavic tribe's settlement wis locatit at Kamienica, an the first documentit uise o Chemnitz wis the 1143 steid o a Benedictine monastery, aroond which a settlement grew. Circa 1170 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor grantit it the richts o an imperial ceety. In 1307, the toun became subordinate tae the margraviate o Meissen (the predecessor o the Saxon state). In medieval times Chemnitz became a centre o textile production an trade. Mair than ane third o the population wirked in textile production. Bi the early 19t century Chemnitz haed become an industrial centre (sometimes cried "the Saxon Manchester"). In 1913, Chemnitz haed a population o 320,000 an is ane o vera few ceeties which wur lairger at that time than they are the day.
Durin Warld War II, Chemnitz includit factories that produced military hardware an a Flossenbürg forced labour subcamp (500 female inmates) for Astra-Werke AG. The ile refinery wis a target for bombers durin the Ile Campaign o Warld War II, an Operation Thunderclap attacks includit the follaein raids:
- 14/15 Februar 1945: The first major raid on Chemnitz uised 717 RAF bombers, but due tae clood cover maist bombs fell ower open kintraside
- 2/3–5 Mairch: USAAF bombers attacked the marshalling yards.
- 5 Mairch: 760 RAF attacked.
The heidquarters o the auto manufacturer Auto Union wur an aa based in Chemnitz syne 1932 an its biggins wur an aa badly damaged. At the end o the war, the company's executives fled an relocatit the company in Ingolstadt, Bavarie—whaur it evolved intae the modren day Audi company o the day.
The Warld War II bombins left maist o the ceety in ruins, an post-war, the East German reconstruction includit lairge law rise (an later heich-rise plattenbau) hoosin. Some tourist steids wur reconstructit durin the DDR era an efter German reunification.
Chemnitz is twinned wi a number o ceeties aroond the warld: