Timbuktu

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Timbuktu
Tombouctou
Ceety
  transcription(s)
 • Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu
Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu
Map showin the main trans-Saharan caravan routes in around 1400. Shown an aw are the Ghana Empire (till the 13t century) an 13t – 15t century Mali Empire. Note the wastren route runnin frae Djenné via Timbuktu tae Sijilmassa. Present day Niger in yellae.
Timbuktu is located in Mali
Timbuktu
Timbuktu
Location o Timbuktu athin Mali
Coordinates: 16°46′33″N 3°00′34″W / 16.77583°N 3.00944°W / 16.77583; -3.00944
Kintra

Mali

Region Tombouctou Region
Cercle Timbuktu Cercle
Settled 12t century
Elevation 261 m (856 ft)
Population (2009)[1]
 • Total 54,453
Type: Cultural
Criterie: ii, iv, v
Designatit: 1988 (12th session)
Reference No. 119
State Party: Mali
Region: Africae
Endangered: 1990–2005

Timbuktu (play /ˌtɪmbʌkˈt/; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou), umwhile spelt Timbuctoo an Timbuktoo an aw, is a ceety in the Wast African naition o Mali situatit 15 km (9.3 mi) north o the River Niger on the soothren edge of the Sahara Desert. It is the caipital o the Timbuktu Region, ane o the aicht admeenistrative regions o Mali. It haed a population o 54,453 in the 2009 census.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: History o Timbuktu

Stairtin oot as a saisonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12t century. Efter a shift in tradin routes, Timbuktu flourished frae the trade in salt, gowd, ivory an slaves, an it became pairt o the Mali Empire early in the 13t century. In the first hauf o the 15t century the Tuareg tribes teuk control o the ceety for a short period till the expandin Songhay Empire absorbit the ceety in 1468. A Moroccan airmy defeatit the Songhay in 1591, an made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their stranghauld. The invaders established a new rulin class, the arma, who efter 1612 became independent o Morocco. Housomeivver, the gowden age o the ceety wis ower an it entered a lang period o decline. Different tribes govrened till the French teuk over in 1893, a situation that lastit till it became pairt o the current Republic o Mali in 1960. Presently Timbuktu is impoverished an suffers frae desertification. Several initiatives are being unnertaken tae restore the historic manuscripts still kept in the ceety. Meanwhile, tourism forms an important source o income.

In its Gowden Age, the toun's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important beuk trade: thegither wi the campuses o the Sankore madrassah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africae. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni an Leo Africanus, hae describit Timbuktu. These stories fuelled speculation in Europe, whaur the ceety's reputation shiftit frae being extremely rich tae being mysterious. This reputation owershadows the toun itsel in modren times, tae the point whaur it is best kent in Wastren cultur as an expression for a distant or ootlandish place.

On 1 Aprile 2012, ane day efter the captur o Gao, Timbuktu wis captured frae the Malian militar bi the Tuareg rebels o the MNLA an Ansar Dine.[2] Five days later, the MNLA declared the region independent o Mali as the naition o Azawad.[3] The newly declared poleetical entity haes no been recognizit bi ony local naitions or the internaitional commonty.[4]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The weather is hot an dry throughoot hintle o the year. Average daily maximum temperaturs in the hottest months o the year – Aprile, Mey an Juin – exceed 40 °C (104 °F). Lawest temperaturs occur durin the Northren Hemisphere winter – December, Januar an Februar. Housomeivver, average maximum temperaturs dae no drop belaw 30 °C (86 °F). These "winter" months are characterizit bi a dry, dusty trade wind blowin frae the Saharan Tibesti Region soothwaird tae the Guwf o Guinea: pickin up dust pairticles on their wey, these winds limit visibility in wha haes been dubbit the 'Harmattan Haze'.[5] Additionally, when the dust settles in the ceety, sand builds up an desertification looms.[6] Timbuktu's climate is classifeed as BWhw accordin tae the Köppen Climate Classification: arid, wi nae month averagin belaw 0 °C (32 °F) an a dry saison durin winter.

Climate data for Timbuktu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 36
(97)
39
(102)
42
(108)
45
(113)
48
(118)
47
(117)
47
(117)
43
(109)
47
(117)
47
(117)
40
(104)
42
(108)
48
(118)
Average heich °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
40.0
(104.0)
42.2
(108.0)
41.6
(106.9)
38.5
(101.3)
36.5
(97.7)
38.3
(100.9)
39.1
(102.4)
35.2
(95.4)
30.4
(86.7)
36.80
(98.24)
Average laich °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
15.2
(59.4)
18.5
(65.3)
22.5
(72.5)
26.0
(78.8)
27.3
(81.1)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
22.7
(72.9)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
20.98
(69.77)
Record laich °C (°F) 5
(41)
8
(46)
7
(45)
10
(50)
15
(59)
21
(70)
17
(63)
21
(70)
18
(64)
12
(54)
7
(45)
1
(34)
1
(34)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.6
(0.024)
0.1
(0.004)
0.1
(0.004)
1.0
(0.039)
4.0
(0.157)
16.4
(0.646)
53.5
(2.106)
73.6
(2.898)
29.4
(1.157)
3.8
(0.15)
0.1
(0.004)
0.2
(0.008)
182.8
(7.197)
Avg. rainy days 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 4 3 1 0 0 14
Source no. 1: World Meteorological Organization[7]
Source no. 2: Weatherbase[8]


Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Timbuktu is a sister ceety tae the follaein ceeties:[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named population
  2. Rukmini Callimachi (1 April 2012). "Mali coup leader reinstates old constitution". Associated Press. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  3. "Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali". Al Arabiya. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  4. Azawad: the latest African Border Dilemma, Walter G. Moseley, Al Jazeera, 18 April 2012
  5. Adefolalu, D.O. (25 December 1984). "On bioclimatological aspects of Harmattan dust haze in Nigeria". Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (New York, NY: Springer Wien) 33 (4): 387–404. doi:10.1007/BF02274004. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named benjaminsen
  7. World Weather Information Service – Tombouctou (1950-2000), World Meteorological Organization, retrieved 14 February 2011 
  8. "Weatherbase: Weather For Timbutku, Mali". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 23, 2011.
  9. "Timbuktu 'twins' make first visit". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Niger River

Template:Communes o the Tombouctou Region