Umm al-Fahm

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Umm al-Fahm
Ebreu transcription(s)
 • Ebreu אֻם אל-פַחְם
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabic أم الفحم
View o Umm al-Fahm
Umm al-Fahm is located in Israel
Umm al-Fahm
Umm al-Fahm
Coordinates: 32°31′10″N 35°09′13″E / 32.51944°N 35.15361°E / 32.51944; 35.15361
Destrict Haifa
Government
 • Type Ceety
 • Heid o Municipality Khaled Hamdan
Area
 • Total 22,253 dunams (22.253 km2 or 8.592 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 • Total 43,300
Name meaning Mither o Charcoal[1]

Umm al-Fahm (Arabic: أمّ الفحم‎, Umm al-Faḥm; Ebreu: אֻם אל-פַחְם‎‎) is a ceety in the Haifa Destrict o Israel wi a population o 43,300,[2] nearly aw o whom are Arab citizens o Israel.[3] The ceety is situatit on the Umm al-Fahm muntain ridge, the heichest point o which is Mt. Iskander (522 meters abuin sea level), owerleukin Wadi Ara. Umm al-Fahm is the social, cultural an economic center for residents o the Wadi Ara an Triangle regions.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Umm al-Fahm sheikh signs an oath o allegiance tae Israel, 1949

Accordin tae the Muslim historian al-Maqrizi, Umm al-Fahm wis established in 1265. Its name means "Mither o Charcoal" in Arabic,[4]) the veelage wis surroondit bi natural forests which wur uised tae produce charcoal. Several archaeological sites aroond the ceety date tae the Iron Age, as well as Muslim, Roman an Hellenistic periods.

In the late 19t century, Umm al-Fahm wis described as haein aroond 500 inhabitants, o which some 80 fowk wur Christians. The place wis well-built o stane, an the veelagers wur described as being vera rich in cattle, goats an horses. A Muqam for a Sheik Iskander wis notit on a hill abuin.[5]

In 1948, there wur 4,500 inhabitants, maistly farmers, in the Umm al-Fahm aurie. Efter the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Lausanne Conference o 1949 awardit the entire Little Triangle tae Israel, which wantit it for security purposes. On 20 Mey 1949, the ceety's leader signed an oath o alliegiance tae the State o Israel. Follaein its absorption intae Israel, the toun's population grew rapidly. Bi 1960, Umm al-Fahm wis given local cooncil status bi the Israeli govrenment. In 1965-1985, it wis govrened bi electit cooncils. In 1985, Umm al-Fahm wis given offeecial ceety status.

Cultur, sport an tourism[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Umm al-Fahm Art Gallery wis established in 1996 as a venue for contemporary airt exhibitions an a hame for oreeginal Arab an Palestinian airt. The gallery operates unner the auspices o the El-Sabar Association.[6] Yoko Ono held an exhibition there in 1999,[7] an some o her airt is still on show. The gallery affers classes tae baith Arab an Jewish children an exhibits the wirk o baith Arab an Jewish airtists. In 2007, the municipality grantit the gallery a lairge plot o land on which a museum o Arab airt will be built.[4] The architect is Senan Abdelqader.[8]

The ceety haes several fitbaa clubs; Hapoel Umm al-Fahm currently play in Liga Artzit, the third tier o Israeli fitbaa. Ironi Sayid Umm al-Fahm play in Liga Alef (the fowert tier). Maccabi Umm al-Fahm play in Liga Bet (the fift tier), an Beitar Umm al-Fahm play in Liga Gimel (the saxt tier).

Green Carpet is an association established bi the residents tae promote local tourism an environmental projects in an aroond Umm al-Fahm.[3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Palmer, 1881, p.154
  2. "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 1,000 Residents and Other Rural Population". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Zafrir, Rinat (2007-12-03). "Green Cities / Wasting away". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Prince-Gibson, Eetta (2007-11-08). "Land (Swap) for Peace?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  5. Conder & Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p.46
  6. "Umm el-Fahim Art Gallery". Retrieved 2008-10-25. [deid airtin]
  7. Patience, Martin (2006-03-10). "Israeli Arab Gallery Breaks Taboos". BBC. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  8. Zandberg, Esther. "A Jump Start for Palestinian Architecture". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-10-25.