Taiwan, Cheenae

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This airticle is aboot the term "Taiwan, Cheenae". For the state commonly kent as "Taiwan", see Taiwan. For the Taiwan Province govrened bi the Republic o Cheenae, see Taiwan Province. For the hypothetical Taiwan Province claimit but no govrened bi the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, see Taiwan Province, Fowkrepublic o Cheenae.

"Taiwan, Cheenae" or "Taiwan, Province o Cheenae" is a set o poleetically controversial an potentially ambiguous terms that characterise Taiwan an its associatit territories as a province or territory o "Cheenae". Housomeibver, the term is problematic an potentially ambiguous acause syne 1949, twa sovereign states wi the name "Cheenae" exist, namely the Republic o Cheenae (ROC, foondit 1911 an nou commonly kent as "Taiwan") an the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (PRC, foondit 1949 an commonly kent as "Cheenae" syne 1971). Housomeibver, anerlie ane "Cheenae" actually rules Taiwan, namely Republic o Cheenae, an haes an admeenistrative diveesion cried "Taiwan Province" but refers tae it as "Taiwan Province, Republic o Cheenae"; whareas, the ither "Cheenae", namely the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, which is the ane internaitionally recognisit as "Cheenae" (no the ROC), claims but daes no control Taiwan as pairt o its territory. Acause "Taiwan" an "China" are kent internaitionally tae be separately poleetical entities, the juxtaposition o "Taiwan" an "Cheenae" in this order intae ane single term "Taiwan, Cheenae" implicitly places the ROC/"Taiwan" unner the sovereignty o PRC/"Cheenae", in the same sense as "Californie, USA". The uise o this term is uisually poleetically promulgatit bi the Communist Cheenese govrenment as a wey tae claim an imply that the ROC/"Taiwan" is unner its sovereignty, syne the PRC claims tae be the legitimate govrenment o "aw Cheenae", which, accordin tae its awn definition, includes Taiwan an aw, despite its lack o control. The ROC govrenment disputes the PRC poseetion an it, alang wi mony ROC ceetizens, considers this term incorrect an affensive, an its uise a purposeful false identification an lee which denies the ROC's sovereignty, an objects tae its uise.[1] The term is pairticularly affensive tae those Taiwanese who believe in Taiwan unthirldom an want tae disassociate Taiwan wi "Cheenae" an a Cheenese identity, an consider it a lee an an oxymoron. Housomeivver, some Taiwanese ceetizens dae no necessarily oppose this term, pairticularly those who view thairsels as "Cheenese" an support eventual Cheenese reunification.

Territory controlled bi the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae (purpie) an the Republic o Cheenae (Taiwan) (orange). The size o minor islands hae been exaggerated in this cairt for ease of identification.

"Taiwan, Cheenae" haed previously been unambiguous atween the years 1945-1949, when anerlie ane "Cheenae" existit, namely the Republic o Cheenae.

Background an ambiguity ower "Cheenae"[eedit | eedit soorce]

Further information: Cheenese Ceevil War

The dispute an ambiguity ower the meanin o "Cheenae" an which "Cheenae" stemmit frae the diveesion o Republic o Cheenae intae twa Cheenaes at the "end" o the Cheenese Ceevil War in 1949.[2] The term "Cheenae" historically meant the various regimes an imperial dynasties which controlled territories in mainland Asie prior tae 1911, when the imperial seestem wis which owerthrown an the Republic o Cheenae (ROC) wis established as the first republic in Asie. In 1927 the Cheenese Ceevil War stairtit atween the Kuomintang (KMT, foondin pairty o the ROC) an the Communist Pairty o Cheenae, a rebel force at the time. The Cheenese Communists eventually wan control o maist o ROC's territory (mainland Cheenae) in 1949, when thay proclaimit the "Fowkrepublic o Cheenae" on that territory. Syne then, twa Cheenaes existit, awtho the PRC wis no internationally recognisit at the time. The Republic o Cheenae govrenment, who receivit Taiwan in 1945 frae Japan then fled tae Taiwan wi the aim tae retak mainlaund Cheenae an retained the name "Republic o Cheenae". Baith the ROC an the PRC still offeecially (constitutionally) claim mainland Cheenae an the Taiwan Aurie as pairt o thair respective territories. In reality, the PRC rules anerlie Mainland Cheenae an haes nae control o but claims Taiwan as pairt o its territory unner its "Ane Cheenae Principle". The ROC, which anerlie rules the Taiwan Aurie (componed o Taiwan an its nearbi minor islands), became kent as "Taiwan" efter its lairgest island, (an instance o pars pro toto). It stopped offeecial active claim o mainland Cheenae as pairt o its territory efter constitutional reforms in 1991.[3]

The PRC, in 1971, subsequently wan the Unitit Naitions seat as "Cheenae" an uise o the name an expelled the ROC frae the UN. Syne then the term "Taiwan, Cheenae" is a designation teepically uised in internaitional organisations lik the Unitit Naitions an its associatit organs unner pressur frae the PRC tae accommodate its claim an tae gie the false impression that Taiwan belangs tae the PRC. (The term "Cheenese Taipei" wis similarly creatit for the same purpose.) Housomeivver, tae whom Taiwan actually belangs is a complex issue an is currently unresolvit, in lairge pairt due tae the Unitit States an the Allies o Warld War II handlin o the surrender o Taiwan (then cried "Formosa") frae Japan in 1945, which wis a temporary custodianship bi the ROC truips unner General Order No. 1, an the Treaty o Peace wi Japan ("Treaty o San Francisco") in 1951, for which neither the ROC nor the PRC wis invitit, an left Taiwan's sovereignty legally undefined in internaitional law an in dispute.

Ambiguity o "Taiwan Province"[eedit | eedit soorce]

The term "Taiwan, (Province of) China" is an aa potentially ambiguous acause baith the ROC and the PRC each haes administratively a "Taiwan Province", Taiwan Province, Republic of China and "Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China", and neither of thir provinces covers the Matsu Islands, Wuchiu, Kinmen, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba, aw of which hae been retained bi the Republic of China. Geographically speakin, thay baith refer tae the same place. The existence of the extra term "Taiwan Province, PRC" is merely acause of PRC's insistence that Taiwan is pairt of China. Wioot mair specific indication, it is unclear tae which "Taiwan Province" is bein referred. Houiver, syne China (PRC) doesn't actually control Taiwan and its "Taiwan Province" exists anly on paper, as a practical matter, "Taiwan Province" refers anly tae the Taiwan Province unner Republic of China's admeenistration.

Awtho the wird "China" coud an aa possibly be interpreted tae mean "Republic of China", this interpretation is no langer common syne "China" is teepically understood as referring tae the PRC efter the ROC lost its UN seat as "China" in 1971, an a term distinct frae "Taiwan", the name with which the ROC haes acome identified. An aa, anly the ROC's Taiwan Province exists in reality and is unner the ROC's actual territorial control, whauras the PRC's "Taiwan Province" exists anly on paper, on the PRC's offeecial administrative documents and unner its govrenment administrative structur but wioot an actual provincial govrenment. Instead, the PRC haes a Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council tae deal with issues and policy guidelines relating tae Taiwan.

The ROC an aa daes nae refer tae its Taiwan Province as "Taiwan, China" but rather as "Taiwan Province, Republic of China" (中華民國台灣省), and teepically sic reference anly occurs in the Cheenese leid. Houiver, reference tae the province is nou rare syne the Taiwan provincial govrenment haes largely been dissolved and its functions transferred tae the central govrenment or coonty governments syne 1997. Therefore recent uses of the term "Taiwan, China" are uisually promulgated bi the PRC tae convey the sense that Taiwan is pairt of its "China".

ROC (Taiwan) govrenment's objection[eedit | eedit soorce]

Awtho the Republic of China is nae a member of the United Nations, the term "Taiwan, China" haes whiles been uised bi the U.N. tae refer tae the Republic of China.[4] (The ROC is prohibited frae uisin its offeecial name internationally unner pressure frae the PRC and uses "Chinese Taipei" in ither organisations.) The ROC sees its uise as a denial of the ROC's status as a separate sovereign state, diminishin it unner "China", which implicitly is the PRC. Various instances of the uise of the term bi international organisations or news media hae been met with protest frae the Taiwanese govrenment officials and ceetizens. In the latest incident on Mey 10, 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the UN, referred tae Taiwan as "Taiwan, China" in its documents. (The ROC participates in the WHO unner the name "Chinese Taipei".) Republic of China's preses Ma Ying-jeou protested WHO's action and accused PR China of "pressuring the UN body into calling" the ROC "Chinese territory", and stated that Beijing's moves war "very negative" for bilateral ties.[5] Ma, who teuk office in 2008, haes taken mony measures tae improve Cross-Strait relations.

Taiwan unthirldom viewpoint[eedit | eedit soorce]

Further information: Taiwan unthirldom

The confusion and fecht ower uise of the "China" name and the lack of name recognition of "Republic of China" itself and recognition as a kintra are pairt of the reason for the supporters of Taiwan independence tae push for an identity apart frae "China" and for renaming the ROC and gaining international recognition as Republic of Taiwan. Some supporters an aa reject the legitimacy of Republic of China's takeover of Taiwan frae Japan at the end of World War II syne 1945 (due tae the lack of transfer of sovereignty in the Treaty of Peace with Japan). Thay view that Taiwan is no langer pairt of China syne "China" is recognised bi the UN as bein the People's Republic of China, an sae placin "Taiwan" and "China" thegither in ane term is nae anly incorrect and an oxymoron but an aa offensively demotes the ROC's naitional sovereign status unner China and causes unnecessary confusion with PR China.

Use in Vietnam[eedit | eedit soorce]

In Vietnam, awtho awmaist state media uise the term "Taiwan" but maist govrenment documents and mony state media[6][7] uisually uise the forms Đài Loan (Trung Quốc) ["Taiwan (China)"] or Đài Loan, Trung Quốc ("Taiwan, China") tae refer tae Taiwan or Republic of China in mony contexts, includin in muisic and entertainment coverage.[8][9][10] In ither media, thay eften uise the term "vùng lãnh thổ" ("territory")[11][12] or "hòn đảo" ("island")[13][14] tae refer tae Taiwan when wantin tae avoid repeating the term "Taiwan" mony times in thair article. The term "Tỉnh Đài Loan" ("Taiwan Province")[15] whiles appear in media tae refer tae aw of "Taiwan Area" (nae anly referring tae the Taiwan Province of ROC). In general, Vietnamese state media never refer tae Taiwan as a "nation" or a "state".

Use in the UN and other instances[eedit | eedit soorce]

The term "Taiwan, Province of China" an aa appears in the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 3166-1 kintra codes acause its information soorce, the publication UN Terminology Bulletin-Country Names, lists Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China" due tae the PRC's poleetical influence in the United Nations as a member of the UN Security Council.[16] Syne the ISO 3166-1 code is a frequently uised data soorce for computer programs and websites tae pull a leet of kintra names, "Taiwan, Province of China" is whiles seen on pull-doun menus instead of "Taiwan" due tae this reason.

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References and Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Taiwan protests 'province of China' WHO label". 
  2. Thare is some debate whether the war haes endit syne the twa Cheenaes are still fechtin for internaitional recognition an assurance o sovereignty. See Cheenese Ceevil War for details.
  3. "A Pivotal President-- Lee Teng-hui's 12 Years". Taiwan Panorama (Sino). 2000-06-05. 
  4. "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Taiwan, China". World Health Organization. 
  5. "Taiwan president protests China pressuring UN body into calling island a Chinese territory". The Washington Post. [deid airtin]
  6. Trần Nga theo Ap. "Đài Loan, Trung Quốc quyên góp 26 triệu USD cho Nhật Bản". Vov.vn. Archived frae the oreeginal on July 15, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  7. "Danh Sách Công Dân Việt Nam Được Thôi Quốc Tịch Việt Nam". Moj.gov.vn. March 25, 2005. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  8. "Trung Quốc, Đài Loan khai trương triển lãm đèn lồng". Cinet.gov.vn. January 15, 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  9. VietNam Airlines tổ chức đoàn khảo sát điểm đến Đài Loan (Trung Quốc)
  10. dT(); (November 9, 2008). "Dị nữ Lady Gaga khuấy động thị trường Đài Loan". Vietnamplus.vn. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  11. "Cựu Lãnh đạo vùng lãnh thổ Đài Loan Trần Thuỷ Biển ra hầu toà". Vietbao.vn. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  12. "Đài Loan dùng sức mạnh mềm chống Trung Quốc?". Baodatviet.vn. October 26, 2010. Archived frae the oreeginal on July 15, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  13. "http://vtc.vn/311-260167/quoc-te/ten-lua-hsiungfeng-2e-cua-dao-dai-loan-co-gi-manh.htm". Baodatviet.vn. October 26, 2010. Archived frae the oreeginal on July 15, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2011.  Freemit airtin in |title= (help)
  14. "Tên lửa Hsiungfeng 2E của đảo Đài Loan có gì mạnh?". Vtc.vn. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  15. "4 người Việt bị bắt ở Đài Loan". Vietbao.vn. Retrieved November 29, 2011. 
  16. Wikipedia: ISO 3166-1