Malcolm X (pronounced /ˈmælkəm ˈɛks/ (deprecatit template); 19 Mey 1925– 21 Februar 1965), born Malcolm Little an an' a' kent as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز), wis an African-American Muslim meenister, public speaker, an human richts activist. Tae his admirers, he wis a courageous advocate for the richts o African Americans, a man who indictit white Americae in the hairshest terms for its creemes against black Americans. His detractors accused him o preachin racism, black supremacy, antisemitism, an violence. He haes been cried ane o the greatest an maist influential African Americans in history, an in 1998, Time named The Autobiography of Malcolm X ane o the ten maist influential nonfiction beuks o the 20t century.
Malcolm X wis born in Omaha, Nebraska. The events o his childhuid, includin his faither's lessons concernin black pride an sel-reliance, an his awn experiences concernin race played a significant role in Malcolm X's adult life. Bi the time he wis thirteen, his faither haed dee'd an his mither haed been committit tae a mental hospital. Efter livin in a series o foster hames, Malcolm X became involved in a nummer o creeminal activities in Boston an New York. In 1946, Malcolm X wis sentenced tae aicht tae ten years in preeson.
While in preeson, Malcolm X became a member o the Nation of Islam, an efter his parole in 1952 he became ane o the Nation's leaders an chief spokesmen. For nearly a dozen years he wis the public face o the controversial group. Tension atween Malcolm X an Elijah Muhammad, heid o the Nation of Islam, led tae Malcolm X's quittin the organization in Mairch 1964. He then became a Sunni Muslim an made a pilgrimage tae Mecca, efter which he disavoued racism. He subsequently traveled extensively throughoot Africae an the Middle East an foondit Muslim Mosque, Inc., a releegious organization, an the secular Pan-Africanist Organization o Afro-American Unity. Less than a year efter he left the Naition o Islam, Malcolm X wis assassinatit bi three members o the group while givin a speech in New York.
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