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Jaffa skyline
St. Peter's Kirk in Jaffa

Jaffa (Inglis pronunciation: /ˈæfə/, /ˈɑːfə/[1]; Hebrew: יָפוֹ‬, Aboot this soondYāfō ; Arabic: يَافَاAboot this soondYāfā ; Laitin: Joppe; an aa Japho, Joppa as transliteration frae the Greek "Ιόππη") is an auncient port ceety believed tae be ane o the auldest in the warld.[2] Jaffa haes been incorporatit wi Tel Aviv creatin the ceety o Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name o the ceety is supposedly mentioned in Egyptian soorces an the Amarna Letters as Yapu. Thare are several legends aboot the oreegin o the name Jaffa. Some say it is named for Japheth, ane o the sons o Noah, who biggit it efter the Great Flood. The Hellenist tradeetion links the name tae "Iopeia", which is Cassiopeia, the mither o Andromeda. An ootcroppin o rocks near the harbor is reputit tae hae been the place frae which Andromeda wis rescued bi Perseus. Pliny the Elder associates the name wi Jopa, the dochter o Aeolus, god o wind. The Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi mentions it unner the name Yaffa, which is uised bi Arabic speakers the day.

Demography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa port

Modren Jaffa haes a heterogeneous population o Jews, Christians, an Muslims. Jaffa currently haes 46,000 residents, o whom 17,000 are Arab citizens o Israel. The majority o the Arab population lives in the renewed soothwastren neighborhuid o Ajami.

Socioeconomic an poleetical problems[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa suffers frae drog problems, heich creeme rates an violence. Some Arab residents hae alleged that the Israeli authorities are attemptin tae Judaize Jaffa bi evictin Arab residents frae hooses awned bi the Amidar govrenment-operatit public hoosin company. Amidar representatives say the residents are illegal squatters.[3] The 2010 film Port of Memory explores thir themes, follaein the lives o Palestinians inhabitin the aurie, stavin aff expulsion.[4] The Tel Aviv municipality haed been accuised o tryin tae erase the ceety's Arab past. In the early 1950s, mony Arabic street names wur replaced bi Ebreu names.

Mosques[eedit | eedit soorce]

Al-Bahr owerleukin Jaffa seashore

Al-Bahr Mosque, owerleukin the harbor, is depictit in a pentin frae 1675 bi the Dutch painter Lebrun. It mey be Jaffa's auldest existin mosque, awtho the oreeginal date o construction is unkent an chynges tae the structur hae been made syne then, sic as the addition o a seicont floor an reconstruction o the upper pairt o the minaret. It wis uised bi fishermen an sailors frequentin the port, an residents o the surroondin aurie. Accordin tae local legend, the wives o sailors livin in Jaffa prayed thare for the safe return o thair husbands. The mosque wis renovatit in 1997.[5]

Mahmoudia Mosque wis biggit in 1812 bi Abu Nabbut, govrenor o Jaffa frae 1810-1820.[6] Ootside the mosque is a watter funtain (sabil) for pilgrims.[7] Nouzha Mosque on Jerusalem Boulevard is Jaffa's main mosque the day.

Urban development[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frae the 1990s onwards, efforts hae been made tae restore Arab an Islamic laundmerks, sic as the Mosque of the Sea an Hassan Bek Mosque, an document the history of Jaffa's Arab population. Parts of the Old City hae been renovated, turning Jaffa intae a tourist attraction featurin auld restored buildings, airt galleries, theaters, souvenir shops, restaurants, sidewalk cafes an promenades. Beyond the Old City an tourist sites, mony neighborhoods of Jaffa are poor an underdeveloped. Houiver, real-estate prices hae risen sharply due tae gentrification projects in al-Ajami an Lev Yafo.[8] The municipality of Tel Aviv-Jaffa is currently wirkin tae beautify an modernize the port aurie, an are expanding the boardwalk alang the sea frae Bat Yam tae Tel Aviv. Thay are an aa biggin a light rail that will traivel frae Bat Yam tae Petach Tikvah an throughout the Gush Dan territory.

Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa clock touer

The Clock Square wi its distinctive clocktouer wis biggit in 1906 in honour o Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The Saraya (govrenor's palace) wis biggit in the 1890s.[9] St. Peter's Kirk is a Franciscan kirk an hospice biggit in the 19t century on the remains o a Crusaders fortress; Napoleon is believed tae hae stayed thare. St. Michael's Kirk, restored in 1994, serves Romanian Christians. St. Tabitha chapel serves the Roushie Christian community, wi services in Roushie an Ebreu. St. Peter's Kirk wis biggit in 1895 on the steid o St. Peter's resurrection o Tabitha. Inside the monastery is the steid o the hoose whaur St. Tabitha lived wi her faimily. Immanuel Kirk, biggit 1904, serves the day a Lutheran congregation wi services in Inglis an Ebreu. Andromeda rock is the rock tae which bonnie Andromeda wis chained in Greek mythology. The Zodiac alleys are a maze o restored alleys leadin tae the harbor. Jaffa Hill is a centre for airchaeological fynds, includin restored Egyptian gates, aboot 3,500 year auld. The Libian Synagogue'(Beit Zunana) wis a synagogue biggit bi a Jewish landlaird, Zunana, in the 18t century. It wis turned intae a hotel an then a saip factory, an reopened as a synagogue for Libian Jewish immigrants efter 1948. In 1995, it became a museum. Jaffa Lichthoose is an inactive lichthoose locatit in the auld port.

Jaffa Museum[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Jaffa Museum is locatit in an 18t century Ottoman biggin constructit on the remains o a Crusader fortress. In 1811, Abu Nabout turned it intae his seat o govrenment. In the late 19t century, the govrenmental muivit tae the "New Saraya," an the biggin wis sauld tae a walthy Greek-Orthodox faimily who established a soap factory thare. Syne the 1960s, it haes hoosed an airchaeological museum.[10]

Airchaeology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Excavations on Rabbi Pinchas Street in the flea mercat hae revealed walls an watter conduits datin tae the Iron Age, Hellenistic period, early Islamic period, Crusader period an Ottoman era. A limestone slab (50 × 50 cm or 20 × 20 in) engraved wi a menorah discovered on Tanchum Street is believed tae be the door o a tomb.[11]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa promenade

Bus[eedit | eedit soorce]

Currently Jaffa is served bi bus anerlie. Dan is the biggest bus company in the aurie. It operates frequent service tae various neighborhuids o Tel Aviv, an an' a' connects Jaffa tae Bat Yam.

Licht rail[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Red Line o the planned Tel Aviv Light Rail will cross Jaffa north tae sooth alang Jerusalem Boulevard.

Jaffa Railway Station[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa Railway Station wis the first railway station in the Middle East, it served as the terminus for the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway. The station wis opened in 1891 an closed in 1948; durin 2005-2009 the station wis restored an convertit tae an entertainment an leisure venue.

Film[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa flea mercat

Clash of the Titans (1981 film) is set in auncient Joppa. The 2009 Oscar-nominatit film Ajami is set in modren Jaffa.

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. dictionary.reference.com: Jaffa
  2. Hai, Yigal (15 Januar 2008). "Archaeological discoveries may prove barrier to Jaffa port rejuvenation". Haaretz. Archived frae the original on 16 Januar 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  3. Protesters rally in Jaffa against move to evict local Arab families 28/4/07, Haaretz
  4. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1420561/
  5. "Al-Bahr mosque in Jaffa". Archived frae the original on 29 Juin 2011. Retrieved 21 Mey 2011.
  6. http://www.artmag.com/galeries/israel/jafphco/aisjaco6.html
  7. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 4 Juin 2011. Retrieved 21 Mey 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Changes in the air for Ajami - JPost". Archived frae the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 17 Januar 2021.
  9. "Tel-Aviv/Yafo Municipality". Archived frae the original on 22 Apryle 2007. Retrieved 21 Mey 2011.
  10. "Old Jaffa Museum". Archived frae the original on 26 December 2008. Retrieved 21 Mey 2011.
  11. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 1 Januar 2013. Retrieved 21 Mey 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 32°3′N 34°45′E / 32.050°N 34.750°E / 32.050; 34.750