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Hobyo (Somali: Hobyo, Arabic: هبيا Hobyoo) is an auncient harbor ceety in the Mudug region o Somalie. Hobyo literally means "here, water", an the plentiful fresh watter tae be haed frae the wells in an aroond the toun (a rarity in this pairt o the warld) haes been the drivin force ahint Hobyo's auncient status as a favorite port-o-caw for sailors.
Hobyo's Origins (12t century tae 15t century)[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hobyo's history began as a place for sailors an caravans tae get fresh watter, sicweys its name. It ae became a toun o importance when the Muslim pilgrims departin for Mecca on thair Hajj an the sea captains who wad tak them thare began favorin the toun as a pynt o departure acause o its fresh watter. This sea an land traffeck suin led tae Hobyo becomin somethin o a commercial center. Opone, the ance-great entrepot, which haed been the centre o commerce, began its decline intae obscurity.
The increasin importance an rapid dounset o mair soothrenlie ceeties sic as Mogadishu further boostit the prosperity o Hobyo, as mair an mair ships made thair wey doun the Somali coast an stopped in Hobyo tae tred an replenish thair watter.
Hobyo in the Medieval Warld (15t century tae 17t century)[eedit | eedit soorce]
Hobyo wis the commercial centre o the Ajuuraan State, based in Qalafo (locatit in the present-day Ogaden). Commercial goods harvestit alang the Shabelle River (especially aroond the agricultural centers o Harardheere an El-Dheer) wur brocht tae Hobyo for tred. The Ajuuraan rulers collectit thair tribute frae the toun in the form o sorghum (durra).
Hobyo's Ajuuraan rulers wur allies wi an occasionally owerlords o the Mogadishu Sultanate, an tred atween Hobyo an the Benadir coast flourished for some time. Sae vital wis Hobyo tae the prosperity o the Ajuuraan State that when the Hiraab (a lineage o closely relatit Hawiye clans) successfully revoltit against the Ajuuraan an establisht an independent Hiraab Imamate, which includit Hobyo, the Ajuran's might dwindled rapidly. This wis no the ae fragmentation o the Ajuuraan State, as the Warsengali an aa broke away tae form thair awn sultanate in the north, an the Majerteen Sultanate shook off centuries o Ajuuraan hegemony. The Ajuuraan remained in thair pouer base in Qalafo, but wur a shadow o thair umwhile selves.
Hobyo in the Colonial Era (1th century tae 20t century)[eedit | eedit soorce]
A Majerteen pretender tae the throne, Yusuf Ali Keenadid, who haed been exiled tae Arabia bi sultan Boqor Isman Mahamud efter a failed coup d'etat, returned frae Arabie an invadit Hobyo wi an airmy o mercenaries frae Hadramut in 1878. Efter conquerin Hobyo frae the Hiraab Imamate, he established himsel as the Sultan o Hobyo.
The Hiraab Imam haed acome too involved in the politics an conflicts wi ither Hawiye clans, wi the Sultan o Oman an wi the Portuguese, which haed drawn his attention sooth tae Mogadishu, an little resistance tae Yusuf Ali Keenadid coud be mustered.
The rest o the Hiraab Imamate wis rapidly snapt up bi the Italians, tho the Imam remained a pouerful force due tae his influence ower Hiraab communities, an plays an important pairt in politics right up tae the present day.
The fowk in an aroond Hobyo grew mainly sorghum an beans as thair staple foods, supplementin this wi herds o caumels, cattle, gaits an sheep. Livestock, hides an skin, aromatic woods an raisins wur the primary exports, while rice, ither fuidstuffs an claes wur importit. Merchants luikin for exotic goods came tae Hobyo tae buy textiles, precious metals an pairls.
Modern Hobyo (20t century tae the present day)[eedit | eedit soorce]
Efter its annexation bi Italy, Hobyo's lifeblood, the tred routes that haed passed throu the toun for 10 centuries, moved permanently sooth tae Mogadishu. The toun never recovered. The majority o the populace, who haed been involved in said mercantile activities, follaet the tred doun tae Mogadishu, establishin the link atween thir ceeties that haes existit tae this day, an the toun haes played nae major role in ony o the ensuin conflicts wi Ethiopia aither as pairt o Italian East Africae or independent Somalie. The governments o baith hae actively encouraged the toun's decline in fact, as thay increasingly centralized Hobyo's historical roles athin Mogadishu. Hobyo is a shadow o its umwhile importance an wealth.
Hobyo wis captured bi the Islamic Court Union (ICU) on August 16, 2006, efter several days negotiation wi leadin figures in the toun. ICU armed pickup trucks ("technicals") surroondit the toun several days afore, an sent in delegates tae negotiate Hobyo's surrender. The ceety wis apparently taken athoot firin a shot, as the unnamed warlord o Hobyo haed fled days earlier upon hearin o the ICU's approach.
The ICU haed taken the toun in an unsuccessful attempt tae end piracy on the Benadir Coast, an Hobyo wis the last remainin major port sooth o Puntland.
Hobyo chose tae jyne the newly formed Galmudug State as an alternative tae annexation bi the ICU, creautin a buffer atween the ICU an Puntland, but wi the rise in conflict atween Galmudug an the ICU, ICU forces teuk the ceety again on November 1.
Hobyo's present status is clear, as the clans Saad is pouerful aroond Hobyo controllin Hobyo, broke away frae the ICU juist afore the Ethiopian offensive tae the coast. At the moment, Contralling Ahlusunna WalJaaca as thay ar Contrallars o Galmudug State.
See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "US destroyer nears Somali pirates". BBC News. 28 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.