Henry VIII o Ingland
Keeng Henry VIII bi Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool
|Keeng o Ingland; Lord/Keeng o Ireland (mair...)|
|Ring||21 Aprile 1509 – 28 Januar 1547|
|Coronation||24 Juin 1509|
28 Juin 1491|
Greenwich Palace, Greenwich
28 Januar 1547 (aged 55)|
Palace o Whitehall, Lunnon
4 Februar 1547|
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle
|Hoose||Hoose o Tudor|
|Faither||Henry VII o Ingland|
|Mither||Elizabeth o York|
Henry VIII (28 Juin 1491 – 28 Januar 1547) wis Keeng o Ingland frae 21 Aprile 1509 till his daith. He wis Laird, an later assumed the Keengship, o Ireland, an continued the nominal claim bi Inglis monarchs tae the Kinrick o Fraunce. Henry wis the seicont monarch o the Tudor dynasty, succeedin his faither, Henry VII.
Besides his sax marriages, Henry VIII is kent for his role in the separation o the Kirk o Ingland frae the Roman Catholic Kirk. His disagreements wi the Pape led tae his separation o the Kirk o Ingland frae papal authority, wi himsel, as keeng, as the Supreme Heid o the Kirk o Ingland an tae the Dissolution o the Monasteries. Acause his principal dispute wis wi papal authority, rather nor wi doctrinal matters, he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachins despite his excommunication frae the Roman Catholic Kirk. Henry owersaw the legal union o Ingland an Wales wi the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 an 1542. He is an aa well kent for a lang personal rivalry wi baith Francis I o Fraunce an the Haly Roman Emperor Charles V, wi whom he frequently warred.
Domestically, Henry is kent for his radical chynges tae the Inglis Constitution, usherin in the theory o the divine richt o keengs tae Ingland. Besides assertin the sovereign's supremacy ower the Kirk o Ingland, sicweys initiatin the Inglis Reformation, he greatly expanded ryal pouer. Charges o treason an heresy war commonly uised tae quash dissent, an those accuised war eften executit wioot a formal trial, bi means o bills o attainder. He achieved mony o his poleetical aims throu the wirk o his chief meenisters, some o whom war banished or executit when thay fell oot o his favour. Figurs sic as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, an Thomas Cranmer figurt prominently in Henry's admeenistration. An extravagant spender, he uised the proceeds frae the Dissolution o the Monasteries an acts o the Reformation Pairlament tae convert money umwhile peyed tae Roum intae ryal revenue. Despite the influx o money frae thir soorces, Henry wis continually on the verge o financial ruin due tae his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars.
His contemporaries considert Henry in his prime tae be an attractive, eddicatit an accomplished keeng, an he haes been describit as "ane o the maist charismatic rulers tae sit on the Inglis throne". Besides rulin wi considerable pouer, he wis an aa an author an componer. His desire tae provide Ingland wi a male heir – which stemmed pairtly frae personal vanity an pairtly frae his belief that a dauchter wad be unable tae consolidate Tudor pouer an maintain the fragile peace that existit follaein the Wars o the Roses – led tae the twa things for which Henry is maist remembered: his sax marriages an his break wi the Pape (who wad nae allae an annulment o Henry's first marriage). As he aged, Henry acame severely obese an his heal suffered, contreibutin tae his daith in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustfu, egotistical, harsh, an insecur keeng. He wis succeedit bi his son Edward VI.