Ferdinand Marcos

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Ferdinand E. Marcos

Marcos in 1982.
10t Preses o the Philippines
In office
30 December 1965 – 25 Februar 1986
Prime MeenisterHimself (1978–1981)
Cesar Virata (1981–1986)
Vice PresesFernando López (1965–1973)
Arturo Tolentino (Feb. 16–25, 1986)
Precedit biDiosdado Macapagal
Succeedit biCorazon Aquino
3rd Prime Meenister o the Philippines
In office
12 Juin 1978 – 30 Juin 1981
Precedit biOffice established
(Poseetion previously held bi Jorge B. Vargas)
Succeedit biCesar Virata
Secretar o Naitional Defense
In office
28 August 1971 – 3 Januar 1972
Precedit biJuan Ponce Enrile
Succeedit biJuan Ponce Enrile
In office
31 December 1965 – 20 Januar 1967
Precedit biMacario Peralta
Succeedit biErnesto Mata
11t Preses o the Senate o the Philippines
In office
5 Apryle 1963 – 30 December 1965
PresesDiosdado Macapagal
Precedit biEulogio Rodriguez
Succeedit biArturo Tolentino
Senator o the Philippines
In office
30 December 1959 – 30 December 1965
Member o the Philippine Hoose o Representatives frae Ilocos Norte's Seicont Destrict
In office
30 December 1949 – 30 December 1959
Precedit biPedro Albano
Succeedit biSimeon M. Valdez
Personal details
BornFerdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos[1]
11 September 1917(1917-09-11)
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippine Islands
Dee'd28 September 1989(1989-09-28) (aged 72)
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
Restin placeMarcos Museum an Mausoleum, Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
Poleetical pairtyKilusang Bagong Lipunan
Ither poleetical
Liberal Pairty (1946–1965)
Nacionalista Pairty (1965–1978)
Spoose(s)Imelda Romuáldez (1954–1989; his daith)
BairnsMa. Imelda Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos, Jr.
Irene Marcos-Araneta
Aimee Marcos
Alma materVarsity o the Philippines College o Law
ReligionRoman Catholicism (umwhile Iglesia Filipina Independiente)
Militar service
Allegiance Philippines
RankMajor Major
Battles/warsWarld War II

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (11 September 1917 – 28 September 1989) wis a Filipino politeecian an kleptocrat[2][3][4][5][6][7] that wis Preses o the Philippines frae 1965 tae 1986. He ruled as a dictator[2][8][9][10] unner martial law frae 1972 till 1981.[11] His regime wis infamous for its corruption,[12][13][14][15] extravagance,[16][17][18] an brutality.[19][20][21]

Marcos claimed an active part in Warld War II, includin fechtin alangside the Americans in the Bataan Daith Mairch an bein the "maist decoratit war hero in the Philippines".[22] A nummer o his claims war foond tae be fause[23][24][25][26][27] an the Unitit States Airmy documents descrived Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" an "absurd".[28]

Marcos stairtit as an attorney, then served in the Philippine Hoose o Representatives frae 1949 tae 1959 an the Philippine Senate frae 1959 tae 1965. He wis electit Preses in 1965, an presidit ower a growin economy in the beginnin an intermediate portion o his 20-year rule,[29] but endit in loss o liveliheid, extreme poverty, an a crushin det creesis.[30][31][32] Marcos placed the Philippines unner martial law on 23 September 1972,[33][34][35] during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media,[36] an uised veeolence an oppression[21] against the poleetical opposeetion,[37] Muslims, communist rebels,[38] an ordinar ceetizens.[39] Martial law wis ratifee'd bi 90.77% o the voters in the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 tho the referendum wis marred wi controversy.[40][41]

Public ootrage led tae the snap elections o 1986. Allegations o mass cheatin, poleetical turmoil, an human richts abuisses led tae the Fowk Pouer Revolution in Februar 1986, that remuived him frae pouer.[42] Tae avoid whit coud hae been a militar confrontation in Manila atween pro- an anti-Marcos truips, Marcos wis advised bi Preses Ronald Reagan throu Senator Paul Laxalt tae "cut an cut cleanly",[43] efter that Marcos fled tae Hawaii.[44] Marcos wis succeedit bi Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widae o the assassinatit opposeetion leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. that haed flown back tae the Philippines tae face Marcos.[42][45][46][47]

Accordin tae soorce documents providit bi the Presidential Commission on Guid Govrenment (PCGG),[48][49][50] the Marcos faimily stole US$5–10 billion.[51] The PCGG an aw mainteened that the Marcos faimily enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, takkin awey billions o dollars[48][50] frae the Philippines[52][53] atween 1965 an 1986. His wife Imelda Marcos, that's excesses in the couple's conjugal dictatorship[54][55][56] made her infamous in her awn richt, spawned the term "Imeldific".[19][57][58][59] Twa o thair childer, Imee Marcos an Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., are still active in Philippine politics.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. National Security Archive (U.S.); Philippines. President (1965-1986 : Marcos) (1990). The Philippines: U.S. policy during the Marcos years, 1965-1986. Chadwyck-Healey. p. 37.
  2. a b Keil, Jennifer Gould (29 August 2018). "Dictator's over-the-top summer home heads to auction block". New York Post.
  3. "Hail to the thief: The Philippine government offers a hero's burial for a murderous kleptocrat". The Economist. 12 November 2016.
  4. John Heilprin (13 Apryle 2015). "Political will guides Marcos case in Philippines". Swissinfo.
  5. Wintrobe, Ronald (2000). The Political Economy of Dictatorship. Cambridge University Press. pp. 11, 132. ISBN 978-0-521-79449-7.
  6. Roa, Ana (29 September 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  7. Nick Davies (7 Mey 2016). "The $10bn question: what happened to the Marcos millions?". The Guardian.
  8. "Philippine dictator Ferdinand Marcos given controversial hero's burial". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 18 November 2016.
  9. "Marcos: Rise and fall of a dictator". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 19 November 2016.
  10. Mijares 1976
  11. Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990). Philippine History and Government (Second ed.). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 971-06-1894-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) p. 189.
  12. Nery, John (11 September 2013). "Corruption in Philippines: Marcos was the worst". The Jakarta Post.
  13. "Global Corruption Report" (PDF). Transparency International. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 4 Julie 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  14. "Global Corruption Report, p. 106". Transparency International. Retrieved 25 Februar 2016.
  15. "Global Programme Against Corruption, p. 274" (PDF). Transparency International. Archived frae the original (PDF) on Apryle 17, 2016. Retrieved Februar 25, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  16. Traywick, Catherine (16 Januar 2014). "Shoes, Jewels, and Monets: The Immense Ill-Gotten Wealth of Imelda Marcos". Foreign Policy.
  17. "The weird world of Imelda Marcos". The Independent. 25 Februar 1986.
  18. Laurie, Jim (1986). "Excerpt - Imelda Marcos from ABC 20/20 March 1986". ABC News.
  19. a b Conde, Carlos H. (8 Julie 2007). "Marcos family returning to the limelight in the Philippines". The New York Times.
  20. "Report of an Amnesty International Mission to the Republic of the Philippines 22 November – 5 December 1975" (PDF). Amnesty International Publications. September 1976. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  21. a b "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. 20 September 1999.
  22. Bueza, Michael (20 August 2016). "Marcos' World War II 'medals' explained". Rappler.
  23. Sharkey, Joan (24 Januar 1986). "New Doubts on Marcos' War Role". The Washington Post.
  24. "Marcos flees at last". Philippine Inquirer. Retrieved 29 Juin 2017.
  25. Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part I)". Asian Journal USA. Archived frae the original on Februar 8, 2017. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  26. Maynigo, Benjamin. "Marcos fake medals redux (Part II)". Asian Journal USA. Archived frae the original on Mairch 5, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  27. Bondoc, Jarius (8 Apryle 2011). "Suspicions resurface about Marcos heroism". Philippine Star.
  28. Gerth, Jeff; Brinkley, Joel (23 Januar 1986). "Marcos's wartime role discredited in U.S. files". The New York Times.
  29. "GDP (constant LCU) - Data". data.worldbank.org.
  30. JC Punongbayan and Kevin Mandrilla (5 Mairch 2016). "Marcos years marked 'golden age' of PH economy? Look at the data". Rappler.
  31. de Dios, Emmanuel (16 November 2015). "The truth about the economy under the Marcos regime". BusinessWorld.
  32. Yamsuan, Cathy (12 December 2011). "Open records of Marcos' spy agency, Enrile urges". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  33. Doronila, Amando (24 September 2014). "The night Marcos declared martial law". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  34. "Declaration of Martial Law". The Official Gazette. Archived frae the original on 25 Januar 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  35. "FM Declares Martial Law". Philippines Sunday Express. 24 September 1972. Archived frae the original on 22 Februar 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  36. Rivett, Rohan (13 Mairch 1973). "The Mark of Marcos – Part I: A deafening silence in the Philippines". The Age.
  37. Kushida, Kenji (2003). "The Political Economy of the Philippines Under Marcos – Property Rights in the Philippines from 1965–1986" (PDF). Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs.
  38. Cesar Lumba. "Once Upon a Blue Dot". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. Robles, Alan (27 Mairch 2000). "What Martial Law was like". Hot Manila. Archived frae the original on 1 Januar 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  40. Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen Roskamm (1987). The Philippines Reader: A history of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship and Resistance. South End Press.
  41. Celoza, Albert F. (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Praeger Publishers.
  42. a b "From Aquino's Assassination to People's Power". Federal Resairch Diveesion o the Leebrar o Congress. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2016.
  43. Hoffman, David; Cannon, Lou; Coleman, Milton; Dewar, Helen; Goshko, John M.; Oberdorfer, Don; W, George C. (26 Februar 1986). "In Crucial Call, Laxalt Told Marcos: 'Cut Cleanly'". The Washington Post.
  44. Reaves, Joseph A. (26 Februar 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules – Peaceful Revolt Ends In Triumph". Chicago Tribune.
  45. Benigno Aquino Jr. (21 August 1983). "The undelivered speech of Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. upon his return from the U.S., August 21, 1983". The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived frae the original on 12 Januar 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  46. Laurie, Jim (21 August 1983). "Last interview with and footage of Ninoy Aquino assassination". YouTube. Retrieved 30 Juin 2010.
  47. Kashiwara, Ken (16 October 1983). "Aquino's Final Journey". The New York Times.
  48. a b Tupaz, Edsel; Wagner, Daniel (13 October 2014). "The Missing Marcos Billions and the Demise of the Commission on Good Government". The World Post.
  49. Pazzibugan, Dona Z. (13 Februar 2014). "PCGG recovers $29M from Marcos loot". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  50. a b Mogato, Manuel (24 Februar 2016). "Philippines still seeks $1 billion in Marcos wealth 30 years after his ouster". Reuters.
  51. "Chronology of the Marcos Plunder". Asian Journal. Archived frae the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved Mairch 1, 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  52. Tantiangco, Aya; Bigtas, Jannielyn Ann (25 Februar 2016). "What Marcoses brought to Hawaii after fleeing PHL in '86: $717-M in cash, $124-M in deposit slips". GMA News Online.
  53. Heilprin, John (13 Apryle 2015). "Political Will guides Marcos case in Philippines". Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
  54. Roa, Ana (29 September 2014). "Regime of Marcoses, cronies, kleptocracy". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  55. Warde, Ibrahim (25 Mey 2011). "From Marcos to Gaddafi: Kleptocrats, Old and New". The World Post.
  56. Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (12 October 2014). "'Imeldific' collection of artworks (partial list)". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  57. Macapendeg, Mac (21 September 2012). "Martial Law fashion: The Imeldific and the Third World look". GMA News.
  58. Arcache, Maurice (24 October 2002). "An Imeldific dinner". The Philippine Star.
  59. Tejero, Constantino C. (14 August 2011). "Imeldific at 82". Philippine Daily Inquirer.