Extinct leid

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An extinct leid is a leid that disnae hae ony speakers ony mair. Extinct leids may be contrastit wi deid leids, that arnae spoken bi onybody ony mair as his or her main leids.

Leid loss[eedit | eedit soorce]

Normally the transition frae a deid tae a extinct leid occurs whan a leid drees leid daith while being directly replaced bi a different ane. For insample, Native American leids wur replaced bi Inglis, French, Portuguese, or Spainyie as a result o colonization. The Coptic leid, replaced bi Arabic in its native Egyp, wis ance thocht tae be extinct.

Leid extinction may occur whan a leid evolves into a new leid or family o leids. An insample o this wis Auld Inglis, a forerunner o Modern Inglis.

By contrast to an extinct language that disnae hae ony speakers ony mair, a deid leid may remain in uise for scientific, legal, or ecclesiastical functions. Old Church Slavonic, Avestan, Coptic, Biblical Hebrew, Ge'ez, Latin, an Sanskrit ar amang the mony dead leids uised as sacred leids.

Alternatively, a leid is said tae be extinct gif, thoch it is kent for haein been spoken bi fowk in the past, modern scholarship cannae reconstruct it tae the point that it is possible tae write in it or owerset intae it wi confidence (say, a simple dialogue or a short tale written in a modern leid); whaurby a leid is referred tae as dead, but no extinct, gif fowk ken eneuch o it at present tae allou sic routine uise, thoch it haes nae modern speakers. Bi thir definitions Proto-Indo-European (anerly conjectural reconstructions o lexicon an grammar o it exist) is an extinct leid, an Classical Latin an Auld Tupi are deid, but nae extinct leids.

A leid that haes livin native speakers is cried a modren language. Ethnologue records 6,912 living languages kent.[1]

Hebrew is an insample o a naur extinct spoken leid (bi the first definition 'boon) that became a lingua franca an a liturgical leid that haes been revived tae become a livin spoken leid. There ither attempts at leid revival. For insample, young schuil bairns uise Sanskrit in revived leid in Mathoor village (Indie). In general, the success o thir attemps haes been subject tae debate, as it isnae clear they will ever become the common native leid o a commonty o speakers.

It is believed that 90% o the circa 7,000 leids currently spoken in the warld will hae become extinct bi 2050, as the warld's leid system haes reached a crisis an is dramatically restructurin.[2][3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Ethnologue". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  2. "Study by language researcher, David Graddol". MSNBC. 2004-02-26. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  3. by Ian on Friday, January 16, 2009 61 comments (2009-01-16). "Research by Southwest University for Nationalities College of Liberal Arts". Chinasmack.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.