East–Wast Schism

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The East–Wast Schism is the break o communion atween whit is nou the Eastren Orthodox an Roman Catholic Kirks which began in the 11t century.[1]

Thare haed lang been ecclesiastical differences an theological disputes atween the Greek East an Laitin Wast.[2][3][4] Prominent amang thir war the issues o the soorce o the Holy Spirit ("Filioque"), whether leavened or unleavened bread should be uised in the Eucharist,[a] the Pape's claim tae universal jurisdiction, an the place o Constantinople in relation tae the Pentarchy.[8]

In 1053, the first step wis taken in the process which led tae formal schism. Patriarch o Constantinople Michael Cerularius ordered the closur o aw Laitin kirks in Constantinople, in response tae the Greek kirks in soothren Italy havin been forced tae aither close or conform tae Latin practices.[9][10][11] Accordin tae the historian John Bagnell Bury, Cerularius' purpose in closin the Laitin kirks wis "tae cut short ony attempt at conciliation".[11]

In 1054, the Papal legate traveled tae Constantinople for purposes that included refusin tae Cerularius the title o "Ecumenical Patriarch" an insistin that he recognise Roum's claim tae be the heid an mither o the kirks.[2] The main purpose o the papal legation wis tae seek help frae the Byzantine Emperor in view o the Norman conquest o soothren Italy an tae deal wi recent attacks bi Leo o Ohrid against the uise o unleavened bread an ither Wastren customs,[12] attacks that haed the support o Cerularius; Axel Bayer says the legation wis sent in response tae twa letters, ane frae the Emperor seekin assistance in arrangin a common militar campaign bi the eastren an wastren empires against the Normans, an the ither frae Cerularius.[13] On the refusal o Cerularius tae accept the demand, the leader o the legation, Cardinal Humbert, excommunicatit him, an in return Cerularius excommunicatit Cardinal Humbert an the ither legates.[2] This wis anly the first act in a centuries-lang process that eventually acame a complete schism.[14]

The validity o the Wastren legates' act is doubtful, syne Pape Leo haed died an Cerularius' excommunication applee'd anly tae the legates personally.[2] Still, the Kirk split alang doctrinal, theological, lingueestic, poleetical, an geografical lines, an the fundamental breach haes never been healed, wi each side whiles accusin the ither o havin fallen intae heresy an o havin ineetiatit the diveesion. The Crusades, the Massacre o the Laitins in 1182, the Wast's retaliation in the Sackin o Thessalonica in 1185, the captur an sack f Constantinople in 1204, an the imposeetion o Latin patriarchs made reconciliation mair difficult.[2] Establishing Latin hierarchies in the Crusader states meant that thare war twa rival claimants tae each o the patriarchal sees o Antioch, Constantinople, an Jerusalem, makin the existence o schism clear.[15]

The Seicont Cooncil o Lyon in 1274 an the Cooncil o Florence in 1439 attemptit tae reunite the twa kirks. Despite acceptance bi the pairteecipatin eastren delegations, no effective reconciliation wis realised, syne the Orthodox believe that the acts o cooncils must be ratified bi the wider Kirk an the acts o thir cooncils never attained widespread acceptance amang Orthodox kirks. In 1484, 31 years efter the Faw o Constantinople tae the Ottoman Turks, a Synod o Constantinople repudiatit the Union o Florence, offeecially statin the poseetion that haed already been taken bi Orthodox in general.

In 1965, Pape Paul VI an the Ecumenical Patriarch o Constantinople Athenagoras I nullified the anathemas o 1054,[2] althou this nullification o measurs taken against a few individuals wis essentially a guidwill gestur an did nae constitute ony sort o reunion atween kirks.[16] Contacts atween the twa sides continue: Every year a delegation frae each jyns in the ither's celebration o its patronal feast, Saunts Peter an Paul (29 Juin) for Roum an Saunt Andrew (30 November) for Constantinople, an thare hae been a nummer o veesits bi the heids o each tae the ither. The efforts o the Ecumenical Patriarchs towards reconciliation wi the Catholic Kirk hae eften been the target o sharp criticism frae some fellae Orthodox.[17]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. A late 11t-century pamphlet, Against the Franks,[5] falsely attributed tae Photios, leets this as seicont point, richt efter the Filioque.[6][7]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Great Schism", Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (article), Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  2. a b c d e f Cross, FL, ed. (2005). "Great Schism (1)". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (article). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280290-9.
  3. D'Agostino, MG (2008), Il Primato della Sede di Roma in Leone IX (1049–1054). Studio dei testi latini nella controversia greco-romana nel periodo pregregoriano, Cinisello Balsamo: San Paolo Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help).
  4. Bayer, Axel (2002), Spaltung der Christenheit. Das sogennante Morgenländische Schisma von 1054 (in German), Köln-Weimar-Wien.
  5. Syndey Palatiano (PDF), Stockton.
  6. Hergenröther, J (1869), Monumenta Graeca ad Photium eiusque historiam pertinentiam (in Latin), Regensburg, pp. 62–71CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link).
  7. Beck, Hans-Georg (1982), Byzantinisches Lesebuch (in German), München, pp. 245–47.
  8. Lembke, Martin (Spring 2010), Meetings with the World's Religions (lecture), Lund University: Centre for Theology and Religious Studies.
  9. Dragani, Anthony (2007). Adrian Fortescue and the Eastern Christian Churches. Gorgias. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-59333345-4. Retrieved 23 Februar 2013.
  10. Bihlmeyer, Karl; Tüchle, Hermann (1967). Church History: The Middle Ages. Newman Press. p. 102. Retrieved 23 Februar 2013.
  11. a b Bury, John Bagnell (1923). The Cambridge Medieval Histories. 4. Plantagenet Publishing. p. 267. Retrieved 23 Februar 2013.
  12. Siecienski, A Edward (2010), The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy, Oxford University Press, p. 113, ISBN 978-0-19-537204-5.
  13. Bayer, Axel (2004), Spaltung der Christenheit (in German), Böhlau, p. 80, ISBN 978-3-41214204-9.
  14. Runciman 1955.
  15. Nichols, Aidan, OP (2010). Rome and the Eastern Churches. Ignatius Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-58617282-4. Retrieved 23 Februar 2013.
  16. The absence o full communion atween the kirks is mentioned explicitly even in the permission that canon 844 §3 o the Code o Canon Law accords for the admeenisterin bi Catholic meenisters o the sacraments o penance, the Eucharist an anointin o the sick tae spontaneously requestin members o eastren kirks such as the Eastren Orthodox Kirk (as an aa the Oriental Orthodox kirks an the Kirk o the East) an o wastren kirks such as the Auld Catholic Kirk.
  17. Eastern Churches Journal. Society of Saint John Chrysostom. 8 (Issues 1–2): 149. 2001. Missing or empty |title= (help)