East–Wast Schism

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The East–Wast Schism is the break o communion atween whit is nou the Eastren Orthodox an Roman Catholic Kirks which began in the 11t century.[1]

Thare haed lang been ecclesiastical differences an theological disputes atween the Greek East an Laitin Wast.[2][3][4] Prominent amang thir war the issues o the soorce o the Holy Spirit ("Filioque"), whether leavened or unleavened bread should be uised in the Eucharist,[a] the Pape's claim tae universal jurisdiction, an the place o Constantinople in relation tae the Pentarchy.[8]

In 1053, the first step wis taken in the process which led tae formal schism. Patriarch o Constantinople Michael Cerularius ordered the closur o aw Laitin kirks in Constantinople, in response tae the Greek kirks in soothren Italy havin been forced tae aither close or conform tae Latin practices.[9][10][11] Accordin tae the historian John Bagnell Bury, Cerularius' purpose in closin the Laitin kirks wis "tae cut short ony attempt at conciliation".[11]

In 1054, the Papal legate traveled tae Constantinople for purposes that included refusin tae Cerularius the title o "Ecumenical Patriarch" an insistin that he recognise Roum's claim tae be the heid an mither o the kirks.[2] The main purpose o the papal legation wis tae seek help frae the Byzantine Emperor in view o the Norman conquest o soothren Italy an tae deal wi recent attacks bi Leo o Ohrid against the uise o unleavened bread an ither Wastren customs,[12] attacks that haed the support o Cerularius; Axel Bayer says the legation wis sent in response tae twa letters, ane frae the Emperor seekin assistance in arrangin a common militar campaign bi the eastren an wastren empires against the Normans, an the ither frae Cerularius.[13] On the refusal o Cerularius tae accept the demand, the leader o the legation, Cardinal Humbert, excommunicatit him, an in return Cerularius excommunicatit Cardinal Humbert an the ither legates.[2] This wis anly the first act in a centuries-lang process that eventually acame a complete schism.[14]

The validity o the Wastren legates' act is doubtful, syne Pape Leo haed died an Cerularius' excommunication applee'd anly tae the legates personally.[2] Still, the Kirk split alang doctrinal, theological, lingueestic, poleetical, an geografical lines, an the fundamental breach haes never been healed, wi each side whiles accusin the ither o havin fallen intae heresy an o havin ineetiatit the diveesion. The Crusades, the Massacre o the Laitins in 1182, the Wast's retaliation in the Sackin o Thessalonica in 1185, the captur an sack f Constantinople in 1204, an the imposeetion o Latin patriarchs made reconciliation mair difficult.[2] Establishing Latin hierarchies in the Crusader states meant that thare war twa rival claimants tae each o the patriarchal sees o Antioch, Constantinople, an Jerusalem, makin the existence o schism clear.[15]

The Seicont Cooncil o Lyon in 1274 an the Cooncil o Florence in 1439 attemptit tae reunite the twa kirks. Despite acceptance bi the pairteecipatin eastren delegations, no effective reconciliation wis realised, syne the Orthodox believe that the acts o cooncils must be ratified bi the wider Kirk an the acts o thir cooncils never attained widespread acceptance amang Orthodox kirks. In 1484, 31 years efter the Faw o Constantinople tae the Ottoman Turks, a Synod o Constantinople repudiatit the Union o Florence, offeecially statin the poseetion that haed already been taken bi Orthodox in general.

In 1965, Pape Paul VI an the Ecumenical Patriarch o Constantinople Athenagoras I nullified the anathemas o 1054,[2] althou this nullification o measurs taken against a few individuals wis essentially a guidwill gestur an did nae constitute ony sort o reunion atween kirks.[16] Contacts atween the twa sides continue: Every year a delegation frae each jyns in the ither's celebration o its patronal feast, Saunts Peter an Paul (29 Juin) for Roum an Saunt Andrew (30 November) for Constantinople, an thare hae been a nummer o veesits bi the heids o each tae the ither. The efforts o the Ecumenical Patriarchs towards reconciliation wi the Catholic Kirk hae eften been the target o sharp criticism frae some fellae Orthodox.[17]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. A late 11t-century pamphlet, Against the Franks,[5] falsely attributed tae Photios, leets this as seicont point, richt efter the Filioque.[6][7]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Great Schism", Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (article), Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Cross, FL, ed. (2005). "Great Schism (1)". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (article). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280290-9.
  3. D'Agostino, MG (2008), Il Primato della Sede di Roma in Leone IX (1049–1054). Studio dei testi latini nella controversia greco-romana nel periodo pregregoriano, Cinisello Balsamo: San Paolo Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help).
  4. Bayer, Axel (2002), Spaltung der Christenheit. Das sogennante Morgenländische Schisma von 1054 (in German), Köln-Weimar-Wien.
  5. Syndey Palatiano (PDF), Stockton.
  6. Hergenröther, J (1869), Monumenta Graeca ad Photium eiusque historiam pertinentiam (in Latin), Regensburg, pp. 62–71CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link).
  7. Beck, Hans-Georg (1982), Byzantinisches Lesebuch (in German), München, pp. 245–47.
  8. Lembke, Martin (Spring 2010), Meetings with the World's Religions (lecture), Lund University: Centre for Theology and Religious Studies.
  9. Dragani, Anthony (2007). Adrian Fortescue and the Eastern Christian Churches. Gorgias. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-59333345-4. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  10. Bihlmeyer, Karl; Tüchle, Hermann (1967). Church History: The Middle Ages. Newman Press. p. 102. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Bury, John Bagnell (1923). The Cambridge Medieval Histories. 4. Plantagenet Publishing. p. 267. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  12. Siecienski, A Edward (2010), The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy, Oxford University Press, p. 113, ISBN 978-0-19-537204-5.
  13. Bayer, Axel (2004), Spaltung der Christenheit (in German), Böhlau, p. 80, ISBN 978-3-41214204-9.
  14. Runciman 1955.
  15. Nichols, Aidan, OP (2010). Rome and the Eastern Churches. Ignatius Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-58617282-4. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  16. The absence o full communion atween the kirks is mentioned explicitly even in the permission that canon 844 §3 o the Code o Canon Law accords for the admeenisterin bi Catholic meenisters o the sacraments o penance, the Eucharist an anointin o the sick tae spontaneously requestin members o eastren kirks such as the Eastren Orthodox Kirk (as an aa the Oriental Orthodox kirks an the Kirk o the East) an o wastren kirks such as the Auld Catholic Kirk.
  17. Eastern Churches Journal. Society of Saint John Chrysostom. 8 (Issues 1–2): 149. 2001. Missing or empty |title= (help)