|Merger o||Australia Party – New LM|
|Heidquarters||711 South Road
Black Forest, SA 5035
The Australian Democrats is an Australian political party espousing a socially liberal ideology. It wis formed in 1977, by a merger o the Australia Party an the New LM, efter principals o those minor parties secured the commitment o umwhile Liberal meenister Don Chipp, as a heich profile leader. The party's 30-year representation in the Parliament of Australia ended on 30 Juin 2008, efter the loss o its fower remainin Senate seats; twa o the senators haed retired frae politics an the ither twa war defeatit at the 2007 election, in which the party polled anly 1.29% o the naitional Senate vote.
The party is based on the principles o honesty, tolerance, compassion an direct democracy throu postal ballots o aw members, sae that "there should be no hierarchical structure ... by which a carefully engineered elite could make decisions for the members.":p187 Frae the outset, members' participation wis fiercely pertected in naitional an divisional constitutions prescribing internal elections, regular meetin protocols, annual conferences—and monthly journals for open discussion an balloting. Dispute resolution procedures war established, wi final recourse tae a party ombudsman an membership ballot.
Policies determined bi the unique participatory method promoted environmental awareness an sustainability, opposition tae the primacy o economic rationalism (Australian neoliberalism), preventative approaches tae human heal an welfare, ainimal rights, rejection o nuclear technology an wappens.
The party's centrist role maks it subject tae criticism frae baith the right an left o the political spectrum. In parteecular, Chipp's umwhile conservative affiliation wis frequently recalled by opponents on the left.[n 1] This problem wis tae torment later leaders an strategists who, by 1991, war proclaiming "the electoral objective" as a higher priority than the rigorous participatory democracy espoused bi the party's founders.[n 2]
Ower three decades, the Australian Democrats achieved representation in the legislatures o the ACT, South Australia, New South Wales, Western Australia an Tasmania as well as Senate seats in aw sax states. Houiver, at the 2004 an 2007 elections, aw seiven o its Senate seats war lost.
In 2009, the party attempted tae reconstruct by reducing membership fees. Houiver, at the Mairch 2010 election held in South Australia (the party's registered home state), the Australian Democrats attracted less nor ane percent o the Upper House vote.
Table o contents
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
1977–79[eedit | eedit soorce]
On the evening o 29 Apryle 1977, Don Chipp addressed an overflowing Perth Town Hall meetin which unanimously passed a resolution tae form a Centre-Line Party, which Chipp wis invited tae lead:p185—but he firmly declined tae reverse his avowed decision tae quit politics, haein resigned frae the Liberal Party an been offered a lucrative poseetion as a radio public affairs commentator. Houiver, at a meetin in the Melbourne Town Hall on 9 Mey, Chipp received a staundin ovation frae ower 3,000 fowk, includin umwhile Prime Meenister John Gorton, an decidit tae commit himself tae leadin the new party which wis already bein biggit by a naitional steering committee.:p186 The name "Australian Democrats", already in informal currency, wis confirmed bi the membership, bein the maist favoured o 56 alternative names on the postal ballot paper.:p188
The first Australian Democrats (AD) federal parliamentarian wis Senator Janine Haines who filled Steele Hall's casual Senate vacancy for South Australia in 1977. Surprisingly, she wis nae a candidate when the party contested the 1977 federal elections efter Don Chipp haed agreed tae be leader an figurehead. Members an candidates war nae lackin in electoral experience, syne the Australia Party haed been contesting aw federal elections syne 1969 an the Liberal Movement, in 1974 an 1975. The party's broad aim wis tae achieve a balance of power in ane or mair parliaments an tae exercise it responsibly in line wi policies determined by membership.
The grassroot support attracted by Chipp's leadership wis measurable at the party's first electoral test at the 1977 federal election on 10 December, when 9.38 per cent o the tot Lawer House vote wis polled an 11.13 per cent o the Senate vote. At that time, wi five Senate seats bein contested in each state, the required quota wis a daunting 16.66 per cent. Houiver, the first 6-year-term seats war won by Don Chipp (Vic) an Colin Mason (NSW).
1980–82[eedit | eedit soorce]
At a Melbourne media conference in 1980, Chipp describit his party's aim as tae "keep the bastards honest"—the "bastards" bein the major parties and/or politicians in general. This became a lang-lived slogan for the Democrats.
The Australian Democrats' first naitional conference, on 16–17 Februar 1980, wis opened bi the distinguished nuclear physicist an umwhile governor o South Australia, Sir Mark Oliphant, who said:
I was privileged to be in the chair at the public meeting in Melbourne when [Don Chipp] announced formation of a new party, dedicated to preserve what freedoms we still retain, and to increase them. A party in which dictatorship from the top was replaced by consensus. A party not ordered about by big business and the rich, or by union bosses. A party where a man could retain freedom of conscience and not thereby be faced with expulsion. A party to which the intelligent individual could belong without having to subscribe to a dogmatic creed. In other words, a democratic party.
At the October 1980 election, the Democrats polled 9.25 per cent o the Senate vote, electing Janine Haines (SA) an twa new senators Michael Macklin (Qld) an John Siddons (Vic), bringin the party's strength tae five Senate seats frae 1 Julie 1981 .
A South Australian by-election in the state seat o Mitcham (nou Waite) in 1982 saw Heather Southcott retain the seat for the Democrats frae Robin Millhouse syne 1955 (Democrat syne 1977), houiver it wis lost later that year at the 1982 state election. Mitcham wis the anly single-member lawer hoose seat anywhere in Australia tae be won bi the Democrats.
1987–90[eedit | eedit soorce]
It haed been expected that the Democrats wad find it difficult tae win seats at the next Senate election due in 1987. Houiver, thair task wis assisted bi the calling o a double dissolution election by Prime Meenister, Bob Hawke. This reduced the quota necessar tae win a seat tae 7.7%. In NSW (Paul McLean), Victoria (Janet Powell) an South Australia (Janine Haines), 6 year terms war won. In South Australia, a seicont senator (John Coulter) wis elected tae 3 year term, an short terms war an aa won Michael Macklin in Queensland an Jean Jenkins in Western Australia.
1990–91[eedit | eedit soorce]
- See 'Give a Damn: Vote Democrat 1' campaign commercial
1990 saw the courageous voluntary departure frae the Senate o Janine Haines (a step wi which nae aw Democrats agreed) an the narrow failure o her strategic goal o winnin the House o Representatives kent as the seat o Kingston.
Her casual vacancy wis filled by Meg Lees several months afore the arrival o Cheryl Kernot, elected tae replace the retiring deputy leader Michael Macklin. The ambitious Kernot immediately contested the Senate leadership. Bein unemployed at the time, she requested an obtained party funds tae pey for her traivel tae address members in aw seiven divisions. In the event, Victorian Janet Powell wis elected as leader an John Coulter wis chosen as deputy leader.
Despite the loss o Haines an the WA Senate seat (throu an inconsistent naitional preference agreement wi the ALP), the 1990 federal election heralded something o a rebirth for the party, wi a dramatic rise in primary vote. This wis at the same time as an economic recession wis building, an events sic as the Gulf War in Kuwait war beginnin tae shepherd issues o globalisation an transnational tred on tae naitional government agendas.
Virtually alone on the Australian political landscape, Janet Powell consistently attacked baith the government an opposition which haed closed ranks in support o the Gulf War. Whereas the House o Representatives wis sicweys able tae avoid ony debate aboot the war an Australia's participation,[n 3] the Democrats teuk full advantage o the opportunity tae muive for a debate in the Senate.
Possibly acause o the party's opposition tae the Gulf War, thare wis mass-media antipathy an negative publicity which some construed as poor performance by Janet Powell. She wis criticised for the party's staundin appearin stalled at aboot 10%, which in licht o future performance can nou be seen as heichly creditable.[citation needit] Afore 12 months o her leadership haed passed, the South Australian an Queensland divisions war circulating the party's first-ever petition tae criticise an oust the parliamentary leader. The explicit grunds relatit tae Powell's alleged responsibility for poor AD ratings in Gallup an ither media surveys o potential voting support. When this charge wis deemed insufficient, interested party officers an senators reinforced it wi negative media 'leaks' concerning her openly established relationship wi Sid Spindler an exposure o administrative failings resultin in excessive overtime tae a staff member. Wi Naitional Executive blessing, the party room pre-empted the ballot by replacing the leader wi deputy John Coulter. In the process, severe internal divisions war generated. Ane major collateral casualty wis the party whip Paul McLean who resigned an quit the Senate in disgust at what he perceived as in-fechtin atween close friends. The casual NSW vacancy creautit by his resignation wis filled by Karin Sowada. Powell duly left the party, alang wi mony leadin figures o the Victorian branch o the party, an unsuccessfully stood as an Independent candidate when her term expired. In later years, she campaigned for the Australian Greens.
Policy[eedit | eedit soorce]
The party's oreeginal support base consisted o voters alienated by perceived unproductive adversarial conflict atween the twa mainstream parties an an emerging new constituency o fowk wi a desire tae participate mair effectively in government an tae promote concerns for environmental protection an social justice. The party aimed tae combine liberal social policies wi centrist, parteecularly neo-Keynesian economics an a progressive environmental platform.
The oreeginal agenda included interventionist economic policies, commitment tae environmental causes, support for reconciliation wi Australia's indigenous population throu sic mechanisms as formal treaties, pacifist approaches tae internaitional relations, open government, constitutional reform, progressive approaches tae social issues sic as sexuality an drugs, an strong support for human rights an civil liberties. Its membership largely comprised tertiary-educated an middle-class constituents. The party an aa appealed tae voters opposed tae untrammelled government power an wishing tae hae alternative views aired in parliaments an media.
The party haes a platform o participatory democracy, wi policies supporting proportional representation an citizen-initiated referenda. Mony important internal issues (sic as electoral preselection an leadership) are decidit by direct postal ballot o the membership. Awtho policies are theoretically set in a seemilar fashion, Australian Democrats parliamentarians generally haed extensive freedom in interpreting them.
Houiver, by 1980, the Australian Democrats haed employed the postal-ballot method at baith naitional at state levels tae develop an extensive body o written policy covering nae anly the political agendas o the day but an aa innovative an far-sighted policies for environmental an economic sustainability, watter an energy conservation, e.g., throu development o alternative energy soorces, expanded public transport, etc. Tae the community's growin concerns aboot human rights, the Australian Democrats added finely detailed policies on ainimal welfare an species preservation. The material is available in election manifestos an copies o the party's journals, obtainable in major public libraries.
In 2009, as pairt o the Rebuild process, the party annoonced a comprehensive review o aw policies.
Electoral fortunes[eedit | eedit soorce]
Template:Original research The Australian Democrats' electoral fortunes hae fluctuated throughout thair history.
During the Hawke an Keating Labor Governments (1983–96), the Australian Democrats held a theoretical balance o power in the Senate: the nummers war sic that thay coud team wi Labor tae pass legislation, or team wi the Coalition tae block legislation on occasions when the Coalition decidit tae oppose a government bill.
Thair power wis weakened in 1996 efter the Howard Government wis elected, an a Labor senator, Mal Colston, resigned frae the Labor party. This meant that the Australian Democrats nou shared the parliamentary balance o power wi twa Independent senators. As a result, the Coalition government coud eften bypass the Australian Democrats, an pass legislation by negotiating wi Colston an Brian Harradine. Follaein the 1998 election the Australian Democrats again held the balance o power, until the Coalition gained a Senate majority at the 2004 election.
The Hawke an Keating governments pursued economic policies that drew on economic rationalist an neo-liberal thocht, an the Australian Democrats poseetioned themselves tae the left o the ALP government, an sicweys at the left end o mainstream Australian politics. Thair appeal (and focus on issues beyond the uisual "economic" ones that monopolised major party attention) wis always greatest amongst tertiary-educated voters. Houiver, the party's progressive politics an aa remained attractive tae a sizeable section o mainly middle class ("wet") Liberal supporters – eften female, an eften disparagingly describit on the right o the Liberal Party as "Soccer Mums" or "Doctor's Wives" – who war turned off bi the Liberal party's social conservatism an "Reagonomic/Thatcherite" economic policies. Mony Liberals saw thair support o the Australian Democrats in the Senate as haein "an each way bet", ameliorating the effect o thair support for the Liberals in the House o Representatives – an attitude positively fostered, nae unsurprisingly, by Democrat politicians an campaigners.
Cheryl Kernot became leader in 1993. She haed strong media appeal, which increased media an public awareness o herself an the party. She wis kent tae hae interests in industrial relations an wis able tae cultivate solit relationships wi Labor government frontbenchers, which an aa added tae her credibility in the press gallery.
Lack o clear direction ither than, possibly, senators' common ambition tae play a mair productive role in government manifested itself in tensions ower Cheryl Kernot's policy on industrial relations (see the Workplace Relations Act 1996). Unner Kernot, efter negotiations an some compromises frae the government, the Australian Democrats voted for the Howard Government's right-leaning industrial relations legislation which decreased union power an allowed a lairger role for individual employer-employee contracts.[citation needit]
Kernot, houiver, remained broadly opposed tae the Liberal government. This, thegither wi her personal ambition for a role in government,[citation needit] led her tae defect tae the ALP in 1997. In the 1998 federal election, the Democrats' candidate John Schumann came within 3 per cent o takkin Liberal Foreign Meenister Alexander Downer's seat o Mayo in the Adelaide Hills unner Australia's preferential voting seestem.
Internal conflict an leadership tensions frae 2000 tae 2002, blamed on the party's support for the Government's Goods and Services Tax (GST), wis damaging tae the Democrats.
In 1998 the Australian Democrats campaigned on supporting taxation reform an a modified GST platform, opposing the GST on fuid an beuks.
In 1999, efter negotiations wi Prime Meenister Howard, Meg Lees an Andrew Murray agreed tae support the A New Tax seestem (ANTS) legislation wi exemptions frae GST for maist fuid an some medicines, as well as mony environmental an social concessions. Five Australian Democrats senators voted in favour. Houiver, twa dissident senators on the party's left Natasha Stott Despoja an Andrew Bartlett voted against the GST.
In 2001, a leadership spill saw Meg Lees replaced as leader by Natasha Stott Despoja efter a very public an bitter leadership battle. Despite criticism o Stott Despoja's youth an lack o experience, the 2001 election saw the Democrats receive seemilar media coverage tae the previous election. Despite the internal divisions, the Australian Democrats' election result in 2001 wis quite good. Houiver, it wis nae enough tae prevent the loss o Vicki Bourne's Senate seat in NSW.
Ongoing tensions atween Stott Despoja an Lees led tae Stott Despoja staundin doun frae the leadership. It led tae a protracted leadership battle in 2002, which eventually led tae the election o Senator Andrew Bartlett as leader. Houiver, the tension led tae Meg Lees leaving the party in 2002, acomin an independent an forming the Australian Progressive Alliance.
On 6 December 2003, Andrew Bartlett stepped aside temporarily as leader o the party, efter an incident in which he assaulted Liberal Senator Jeannie Ferris on the floor o Parliament while intoxicated. The party issued a statement statin that Deputy Leader Lyn Allison wad serve as the Actin Leader o the party. Bartlett apologised tae the Democrats, Jeannie Ferris an the Australian public for his behaviour an assured aw concerned that it wad never happen again. On 29 Januar 2004, efter seeking medical treatment, Bartlett returned tae the Australian Democrats leadership, vowing tae abstain frae alcohol.
2004[eedit | eedit soorce]
Support for the Australian Democrats fell significantly at the 2004 federal election in which thay achieved anly 1.24 per cent o the naitional vote. Nowhere wis this mair noticeable than in thair key support base o suburban Adelaide in South Australia, whaur thay received atween 7 an 31 per cent o the Lawer House vote in 2001, an atween 1 an 4 per cent in 2004. Three incumbent senators war defeatit—Aden Ridgeway (NSW), Brian Greig (WA) an John Cherry (Qld). Follaein the loss, the customary post-election leadership ballot installed Lyn Allison as leader an Andrew Bartlett as her deputy.
Frae 1 Julie 2005 the Australian Democrats lost offeecial parliamentary party status, bein represented by anly fower senators while the governing Liberal-Naitional Coalition gained a majority an potential control o the Senate—the first time this advantage haed been enjoyed by ony government syne 1980.
2006[eedit | eedit soorce]
On 5 Januar 2006, the ABC reportit that the Tasmanian Electoral Commission haed de-registered that division o the party for failing tae provide a leet containing the required nummer o members tae be registered for Tasmanian state an local elections.
On 18 Mairch 2006, at the 2006 South Australian state election, the Australian Democrats war reduced tae 1.7 per cent o the Legislative Council (upper hoose) vote. Thair sole councillor up for re-election, Kate Reynolds, wis defeatit.
In early Julie, Richard Pascoe, naitional an South Australian party preses, resigned, citing slumping opinion polls an the poor result in the 2006 South Australian election as well as South Australian parliamentary leader Sandra Kanck's comments regarding the drog MDMA which he saw as damaging tae the party.
On 5 Julie 2006, Australian Democrats senator for Western Australia Andrew Murray annoonced his intention nae tae contest the 2007 federal election, citing frustration arising frae the Howard Government's control o baith houses an his unwillingness tae serve anither sax-year term. His term ended on 30 Juin 2008.
On 28 August 2006, the founder o the Australian Democrats, Don Chipp, died. Former prime meenister Bob Hawke said: "... there is a coincidental timing almost between the passing of Don Chipp and what I think is the death throes of the Democrats. "
On 22 October 2006, Australian Democrats Senator Natasha Stott Despoja annoonced her intention nae tae seek re-election at the 2007 federal election due tae heal concerns. Her term ended on 30 Juin 2008.
In November 2006, the Australian Democrats fared very poorly in the Victorian state election, receiving a Legislative Council vote tally o anly 0.83%, less nor hauf o the party's result in 2002 (1.79 per cent).
2007[eedit | eedit soorce]
In the New South Wales state election o Mairch 2007, the Australian Democrats lost thair last remainin NSW Upper House representative, Arthur Chesterfield-Evans. The party fared poorly, gaining anly 1.8 per cent o the Legislative Council vote. A higher vote wis achieved in some o the Legislative Assembly seats selectively contested as compared tae 2003. Houiver, the statewide vote share fell acause the party wis unable tae field as mony candidates as in 2003.
In the Victorian state by-election in Albert Pairk District the Australian Democrats stood candidate Paul Kavanagh, who polled a respectable 5.75 per cent o the primary vote, despite a lairge nummer o candidates, an aw media attention focusing on the battle atween Labor an Greens candidates.
On 13 September 2007, the ACT Democrats (Australian Capital Territory Division o the party) wis deregistered bi the ACT Electoral Commissioner, bein unable tae demonstrate a minimum membership o 100 electors.
As wis widely expected, the Democrats haed no success at the 2007 federal election. Twa incumbent senators, Lyn Allison (Victoria) an Andrew Bartlett (Queensland), war defeatit, thair seats baith reverting tae major parties. Thair twa remainin colleagues, Andrew Murray (WA) an Natasha Stott Despoja (SA), did nae run for new terms. Aw fower senators' terms expired on 30 Juin 2008—leaving the Australian Democrats wi no federal representation for the first time syne its founding in 1977. An ABC report noted that "on the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) website the party is now referred to just as 'other'".
2008[eedit | eedit soorce]
The party achieved anly 1.24% o the vote at the federal 2008 Mayo by-election in South Australia. At the Australian Capital Territory general election, 2008, the party's ungrouped candidates obtained 0.3% o the vote for Ginninderra (Darren Churchill) an 0.2% in Molonglo (Greg Tannahill).
2009[eedit | eedit soorce]
In Julie 2009, the party's sole remainin parliamentarian, David Winderlich, annoonced he wad leave the party an sit as an independent unless the South Australian Democrats coud recruit 1,000 new members by November 2009. When this clearly coud nae eventuate, he resigned frae the party on 7 October 2009, continued tae sit as an independent an wis defeatit at the 2010 election.
2010[eedit | eedit soorce]
The South Australian Democrats contested the state election on 20 Mairch 2010. The lead Legislative Council candidate wis ainimal rights activist an umwhile independent, Jeanie Walker wi supporting candidates Tom Salerno an Sandra Kanck Thay attracted 0.9% o the tot primary vote. Houiver, on preferences, Jeanie Walker survived until the 35th roond o counting, losin tae micro-party Dignity for Disability's Kelly Vincent who wis elected in the 43rd roond. Aicht House o Assembly seats war an aa contested, averagin 2.24 per cent o the vote in those seats.
At the 2010 federal election, Democrat candidates again failed tae secure ony seats in the Senate. Thay polled very poorly, achieving anly 0.5%–0.75% o vote in the states an 1.6% o the vote in the ACT.
Support[eedit | eedit soorce]
Support for the Democrats historically tended tae fluctuate atween aboot 5 an 10 per cent o the population an wis geographically concentrated aroond the wealthy dense CBD and inner-suburban neighbourhoods o the capital cities (especially Adelaide). Therefore, thay never managed tae win a House of Representatives seat. During the 1980s, 1990s an early 2000s thay teepically held ane or twa Senate seats in each state, as well as haein some representatives in state parliaments an local councils.
Follaein the internal conflict ower GST (1998–2001) an resultant leadership changes, a dramatic decline occurred in the Democrats' membership an voting support in aw states. Simultaneously, an increase wis recorded in support for the Australian Greens who, by 2004, war supplanting the Democrats as a substantial third party. The trend wis noted that year by political scientists Dean Jaensch et al. Elsewhere, Jaensch later suggestit it wis possible the Democrats coud mak a political comeback in the federal arena.
Follaein Tony Abbott's displacement o Malcolm Turnbull as federal leader o the Liberal Party in 2009, the Democrats sought tae attract the support o "those Liberals who no longer feel they can support their party.
Leadership[eedit | eedit soorce]
Of the party's nine elected federal parliamentary leaders, six were women. Aboriginal senator Aden Ridgeway was deputy leader under Natasha Stott Despoja.
Federal parliamentary leaders of the Australian Democrats.
|Don Chipp||Victoria||1977–1986||Formerly Liberal Party MP for Hotham, Victoria|
|Janine Haines||South Australia||1986–1990||Resigned leadership an Senate seat tae contest the Lawer House seat o Kingston|
|Michael Macklin||Queensland||1981–1990||Leader frae federal election nicht until 30 Juin 1990.|
|John Coulter||South Australia||1991–1993|
|Cheryl Kernot||Queensland||1993–1997||Resigned the leadership 15 October 1997.|
|Meg Lees||South Australia||1997–2001|
|Natasha Stott Despoja||South Australia||2001–2002||Resigned the leadership 21 August 2002.|
|Brian Greig||Western Australia||2002||Interim leader frae 23 August until 5 October 2002|
Former senators[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Janine Haines||South Australia||1977–1978; 1981–1990|
|Colin Mason||New South Wales||1978–1987|
|John Siddons||Victoria||1981–1983; 1985–1986 (1987)[n 4]|
|Jack Evans||Western Australia||1983–1985|
|David Vigor||South Australia||1985–1987[n 4]|
|Janet Powell||Victoria||1986–1992 (1993)[n 5]|
|Paul McLean||New South Wales||1987–1991|
|Jean Jenkins||Western Australia||1987–1990|
|Vicki Bourne||New South Wales||1990–2002|
|John Coulter||South Australia||1987–1995|
|Karin Sowada||New South Wales||1991–1993|
|Meg Lees||South Australia||1990–2002 (2005)[n 6]|
|Natasha Stott Despoja||South Australia||1995–2008|
|Andrew Murray||Western Australia||1996–2008|
|Aden Ridgeway||New South Wales||1999–2005|
|Brian Greig||Western Australia||1999–2005|
Former members in the states and territories[eedit | eedit soorce]
|AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY||Gordon Walsh||House of Assembly||1979–1985|
|Ivor Vivian||House o Assembly||1979–1985|
|Roslyn Dundas||Legislative Assembly||Ginninderra||2001–2004|
|NEW SOUTH WALES||Elisabeth Kirkby||Legislative Council||1981–1998|
|Richard Jones||Legislative Council||1988–1996[n 7]|
|Arthur Chesterfield-Evans||Legislative Council||1998–2007|
|WESTERN AUSTRALIA||Norm Kelly||Legislative Council||East Metropolitan Region||1997–2001|
|Helen Hodgson||Legislative Council||North Metropolitan Region||1997–2001|
|SOUTH AUSTRALIA||Robin Millhouse||Legislative Assembly||Mitcham||1977–1982|
|Lance Milne||Legislative Council||1979–1985|
|Heather Southcott||Legislative Assembly||Mitcham||1982|
|Ian Gilfillan||Legislative Council||1982–1993, 1997–2006|
|Mike Elliott||Legislative Council||1985–2003|
|Sandra Kanck||Legislative Council||1993–2009|
|Kate Reynolds||Legislative Council||2003–2006|
|David Winderlich||Legislative Council||2009[n 8]|
|TASMANIA||Norm Sanders||Legislative Assembly||Denison||1980–1982|
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Such as the then Socialist Workers' Party and early green-left parties such as the United Tasmania Group.
- The first substantive reason given by rebellious senators for deposing leader Janet Powell in 1991 was her alleged failure to develop a media profile which would attract more electoral support. The first conclusive constitutional abandonment of founding principles was probably the July 1993, decision of the party's national executive to terminate monthly publication of the members' National Journal and to replace it with less frequent publication of glossy promotional material.
- The sole independent member in the House, Ted Mack, was unable to launch his critical motion for lack of a seconder.
- Resigned from party in November 1986 and sat as an independent senator until defeat at the 1987 election as a Unite Australia Party candidate.
- Resigned from party in July 1992 and sat as an independent senator until defeat at the 1993 election.
- Resigned from party in July 2002 and sat as an independent senator until defeat at the 2004 election as an Australian Progressive Alliance candidate.
- Resigned from party in 1996 and sat as an independent MLC until retirement at the 2003 election.
- Resigned from party on 7 October 2009 and sat as an independent MLC until 2010 election when was not re-elected.
See also[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Australian Democrats.|
- Liberalism worldwide
- List of liberal parties
- Liberal democracy
- Timeline of (small-l) liberal parties in Australia
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "Democrats History at". Australianpolitics.com. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "2007 Senate election: (National tally of) First Preferences by Group". Results.aec.gov.au. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- Chipp D and Larkin J The Third Man Rigby, Melbourne (1978) ISBN 0-7270-0827-7
- Australian Democrats Begin Rebuilding with More Affordable Membership Party media release, 22 April 2009. Retrieved January 2010.
- Registered parties at Australian Electoral Commission, 2010
- Hewat T & Wilson D Don Chipp (1978) p. 84: "[In mid-June 1977] the party ... was still without a formal name but operating as the Australian Democrats."
- 1980 Conference Proceedings, Beyond our Expectations
- AD National Journal June 1990, p.5
- "Ted Mack's speech on Gulf War". Parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "',Senate Hansard',, 21 Jan 1991". Parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Australian Democrats : Policies Of The Australian Democrats". Democrats.org.au. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Australian Democrats Campaign Launch Speech 1998". Parlinfo.aph.gov.au. 20 September 1998. Retrieved 1 Februar 2011.
- "Australian Treasury: Tax Reform: Not a New Tax, A New Tax System". Treasury.gov.au. 1 August 1998. Retrieved 1 Februar 2011.
- Senator Meg Lees’s address to the Australian Democrats’ National Conference, Brisbane, 20 January 2001 
- Kirk, Alexandra (19 Juin 1999). "Democrats make good on GST compromise deal". ABC PM, Radio National. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- ABC TV: 7.30 Report: 7/6/1999: ["GST deal sparks Democrat crisis" http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s28235.htm]
- Kehoe, John. "Lees has no regrets Democrats gave their support" Australian Financial Review 30 June 2010.
- Phillip Coorey "Democrats in Denial" in David Solomon (ed) "Howard's Race – Winning the Unwinnable Election, Harper Collins, 2002, p42-44
- Alison Rogers, "The Natasha Factor," Lothian Books, 2004, pp29ff
- Phillip Coorey "Democrats Opt for Leadership" in David Solomon (ed) "Howard's Race – Winning the Unwinnable Election, Harper Collins, 2002, p180
- Stott Despoja resigns as Democrats leader, ABC 7.30 Report, 21 October 2002
- "Disgraced leader steps aside". The Age. Melbourne. 7 December 2003. Retrieved 3 Aprile 2007.
- "Australian Democrats Deregistered in Tasmania, ',ABC News',, 5 January 2006". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 Januar 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 29 November 2007. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Stott-Despoja denies rumours she is quitting, ',ABC News',, 22 March 2006". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 Mairch 2006. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Political analyst predicts Democrats' demise, ',ABC News', 11 July 2006". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 Julie 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 29 November 2007. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Former leader sees Democrats in 'tatters', ',ABC News', 11 July 2006". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 Julie 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 29 November 2007. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- Kanck says rave party safer than the front bar, The Advertiser 5 July 2006 Article no longer available online.
- "',Sydney Morning Herald', 8 July 2006". Sydney Morning Herald. 8 Julie 2006. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Hawke predicts end is near for Democrats, ',ABC News', 29 August 2006". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 August 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Stott-Despoja to bow out of politics, ',ABC News', 22 October 2006". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 October 2006. Archived frae the oreeginal on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- "Victorian Electoral Commission: Results for Upper House, 2006". Vec.vic.gov.au. 1 Januar 1999. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.[deid airtin]
- "Victorian Electoral Commission: Results for Upper House, 2006". Vec.vic.gov.au. 1 Januar 1999. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.[deid airtin]
- "VEC: Albert Park District By-Election 2007". Vec.vic.gov.au. 1 Januar 1999. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.[deid airtin]
- "ACT legislation register – Electoral (Cancellation of the Registration of the Australian Democrats) Notice 2007 – main page". Legislation.act.gov.au. 13 September 2007. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.[deid airtin]
- Caldwell A Democrats to lose parliamentary representation 26 November 2007
- Democrats candidates unveiled ABC News, 25 July 2008
- Results for Ginninderra Electorate at Elections ACT
- Results for Molonglo Electorate at Elections ACT
- Democrats MP divides party with 1,000-member ultimatum
- Emmerson, Russell (7 October 2009). "David Winderlich quits, Democrats are no more". News.com.au. Retrieved 25 Aprile 2010.
- Virtual Tally Room, Higgins 2009 by election at Australian Electoral Commission, 23 December 2009
- Stateline interview ABC TV, 30 September 2005
- Former Democrats MP Sandra Kanck wants to return to SA State Parliament Adelaide Sunday Mail (AdelaideNow) 18 February 2010
- 2010 results for Legislative Coucil at Electoral Commission SA
- Legislative Council count at ABC News 2010 South Australian Election coverage
- "the Australian Democrats appear to be in decline, having performed very poorly at the 2004 federal election and look to be replaced by the Greens as the major ‘minor’ party". --Jaensch D et al. Australian Political Parties in the Spotlight pp 40–41. Australian National University, January 2005
- Dean Jaensch radio interview, http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2008/s2631202.htm, accessed 28/7/09
- Media release dated 12 December 2009, on official party site
Further reading[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Bennett D, Discord in the Democrats PWHCE article, Melbourne 2002
- Beyond Our Expectations—Proceedings o the Australian Democrats First Naitional Conference, Canberra, 16–17 Februar 1980. [Papers by: Don Chipp, Sir Mark Oliphant, Prof. Stephen Boyden, Bob Whan, Julian Cribb, Colin Mason, John Siddons, A. McDonald]
- Chipp D (ed. Larkin J) Chipp, Methuen Haynes, North Ryde NSW, 1987 ISBN 0-454-01345-0
- Gauja A Keeping the Bastards Honest: The Political Legacy of the Australian Democrats Conference paper for Politics beyond the mainstream at University of Birmingham November 2007
- Paul A and Miller L The Third Team July 2007 A historical essay in 30 Years—Australian Democrats Melbourne 2007. (A 72-page anthology o historical an biogaphical monographs aboot the state an federal parliamentary experiences o the Democrats, for the party's 30t anniversary.)
- Sugita H Challenging 'twopartism'—the contribution of the Australian Democrats to the Australian party system, PhD thesis, Flinders University o South Australia, Julie 1995
- Warhurst J (ed.) Keeping the bastards honest Allen & Unwin Sydney 1997 ISBN 10 1864484209
- Warhurst J, Don Chipp Was The Right Man In The Right Place At The Right Time Canberra Times 7 September 2006
[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Australian Democrats offeecial site o the party
- Don Chipp Foundation
- Andrew Murray Archived unofficial site o umwhile senator
- Natasha Stott Despoja Archived unofficial site o umwhile senator
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Australie Democrats.|