António de Oliveira Salazar

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António de Oliveira Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar
101st Prime Meenister o Portugal
(47t o the Republic)
(7t syne the 1926 coup d'état)
(1st o the Estado Novo)
In office
5 Julie 1932 – 25 September 1968
Preses António Óscar Carmona (5 Julie 1932–18 Aprile 1951)
Hissel (interim) (18 Aprile 1951–9 August 1951)
Francisco Craveiro Lopes (9 August 1951–9 August 1958)
Américo Tomás (9 August 1958–25 September 1968)
Precedit bi Domingos Oliveira
Succeeded by Marcelo Caetano
Meenister for Finances
In office
3 Juin 1926 – 19 Juin 1926
Prime Meenister José Mendes Cabeçadas
Precedit bi Armando Manuel Marques Guedes
Succeeded by Filomeno da Câmara de Melo Cabral
In office
28 Aprile 1928 – 28 August 1940
Prime Meenister José Vicente de Freitas (28 Aprile 1928–8 Julie 1928)
Artur Ivens Ferraz (8 Julie 1928–21 Januar 1930)
Domingos Oliveira (21 Januar 1930–5 Julie 1932)
Hissel (5 Julie 1932–28 August 1940)
Precedit bi João José Sinel de Cordes
Succeeded by João Pinto da Costa Leite, 4t Conde de Lumbrales
Meenister for the Colonies
In office
21 Januar 1930 – 20 Julie 1930
Prime Meenister Domingos Oliveira
Precedit bi José Bacelar Bebiano
Succeeded by Eduardo Augusto Marques
Meenister for Defence
In office
5 Julie 1932 – 2 August 1950
Prime Meenister Hissel
Precedit bi Post creatit
Succeeded by Santos Costa
In office
13 Aprile 1961 – 4 December 1962
Prime Meenister Hissel
Precedit bi Júlio Botelho Moniz
Succeeded by Gomes de Araújo
Meenister for War
In office
11 Mey 1936 – 6 September 1944
Prime Meenister Hissel
Precedit bi Abílio Passos e Sousa
Succeeded by Santos Costa
Personal details
Born Aprile 28, 1889(1889-04-28)
Vimieiro, Santa Comba Dão, Portugal
Deed Julie 27, 1970(1970-07-27) (aged 81)
Lisbon, Portugal
Poleetical pairty Academic Centre of Christian Democracy, later National Union
Spoose(s) Single; Niver marriet
Profession Professor (economics an poleetical economy)
an economist
Releegion Roman Catholic

António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu dɨ oliˈvɐjɾɐ sɐlɐˈzaɾ]; 28 Aprile 1889 – 27 Julie 1970) served as the Prime Meenister o Portugal frae 1932 tae 1968. He also served as acting Preses o the Republic for maist o 1951. He foondit an led the Estado Novo (New State), the authoritarian, right-wing government that presidit over an controlled Portugal frae 1932 tae 1974.

Accordin tae some Portuguese conservative scholars like Jaime Nogueira Pinto an Rui Ramos, his early reforms an policies allowed political an financial stability and therefore social order an economic growth, efter the politically unstable an financially chaotic years o the Portuguese First Republic (1910–1926). Ither historians point oot that Salazar's policies lead tae the kintra's economic an social stagnation an rampant emigration, turnin Portugal in ane o the poorest kintras in Europe an accompanied bi ane o the hichtest rates o illiteracy.

Salazar's program wis opposed te communism, socialism, an liberalism. It wis clerical, conservative, an naitionalistic. Its policy envisaged the perpetuation o Portugal as a pluricontinental empire, wi Angola an Mozambique as the main colonies, an a source o civilization an stability to the overseas societies in the African an Asien possessions.

Salazar's regime an its secret police (PIDE) repressed civil liberties an political freedoms in order tae remain in control o Portugal.

Post-Salazar Portugal[eedit | eedit soorce]

After Salazar's daith, his Estado Novo regime persistit unner the direction o ane o his langtime aides, Marcelo Caetano. Despite tentative overtures towards an openin o the regime, Caetano balked at endin the colonial war, nowi'standin the condemnation o maist o the interniational community. Eventually the Estado Novo fell in Aprile 25, 1974, efter the Carnation Revolution. The retreat frae the colonies an the acceptance o its independence terms which woud create newly-independent communist states in 1975 (maist notably the Fowkrepublic o Angola an the Fowkrepublic o Mozambique) promptit a mass exodus o Portuguese citizens frae Portugal's African territories (maistly frae Portuguese Angola an Mozambique), creatin over a million destitute Portuguese refugees — the retornados.