5 October 1910 revolution

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The revolution o 1910 wis a republican coup d'état that occurred in Portugal on 5 October 1910, whilk deposed Keeng Manuel II an establisht the Portuguese First Republic.

Prior tae the coup, Prime Meenister João Franco stepped doun an gaed intae exile. New elections war hudden, but factionalism preventit the formation o a stable govrenment. On 1 October 1910, a veesit bi preses Hermes da Fonseca o Brazil providit a pretext for extensive republican demonstrations. On 3 October the Airmy refused tae pit doun a mutiny on Portuguese warships anchored in the estuary o the Tagus River, an insteid teuk up poseetions aroond Lisbon. On 4 October, twa o the warships began tae shell the ryal palace, causin Manuel II an the ryal faimily tae flee tae Breetain. On 5 October, a provisional republican govrenment wis organised wi the writer Teófilo Braga as Preses.

The revolution an the republic that it spawned war anticlerical an haed a "hostile" approach tae the issue o kirk an state separation, lik that o the French Revolution, the Spainyie Constitution o 1931 an the Mexican Constitution o 1917.[1] As pairt o the anticlerical revolution, the bishops war driven frae thair dioceses, the property o clerics wis seized bi the state, weirin o the cassock wis banned, aw minor seminaries war closed an aw but five major seminaries.[2] A law o 22 Februar 1918 permittit ae twa seminaries in the kintra, but thay haed no been gien thair property back.[2] Releegious orders war expelled frae the kintra, includin 31 orders comprisin members in 164 hooses (in 1917 some orders war permittit tae form again).[2] Releegious eddication wis prohibitit in baith primary an seicontar schuil.[2]

The involvement o mutinous warships in the revolution prefigured a seemilar involvement in baith the October Revolution in 1917 Roushie an the faw o the German Monarchy in 1918.

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References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Maier, Hans (2004). Totalitarianism and Political Religions. trans. Jodi Bruhn. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 0714685291.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  2. a b c d Jedin, Hubert, Gabriel Adriányi, John Dolan, The Church in the Modern Age, p. 612, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1981

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