|Leader(s)||Osama bin Laden (1988–2011)|
Ayman al-Zawahiri (2011 – present)
|Dates o operation||11 August 1988 – present|
Strict sharia law
Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ], Inglis: /ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də, translation: "The Base" an alternatively spelled al-Qaida an whiles al-Qa'ida) is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization foondit bi Osama bin Laden sometime atween August 1988 an late 1989. It operates as a netwirk comprisin baith a multinaitional, stateless airmy an a radical Sunni Muslim muivement cawin for global Jihad. It haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the Unitit States, the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil, the European Union, NATO, an various ither kintras (see belaw).
Al-Qaeda haes attackit ceevilian an militar targets in various kintras, sic as the 11t September attacks, 1998 US embassy bombins an 2002 Bali bombins. The US govrenment respondit bi launchin the War on Terror. Al-Qaeda haes continued tae exist an grow throu the decade frae 2001 tae 2011. Wi the loss o key leaders culminatin wi the daith o Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations hae devolvit frae tap-doun controlled, tae franchise associatit groups, tae lane wouf operators. Wi the daith o key communicators, lik Anwar al-Awlaki, the ability o al-Qaeda's "brand" tae inspire, motivate an instill fear haes shairply declined.
Characteristic techniques include suicide attacks an simultaneous bombins o different targets. Activities ascribit tae it mey involve members o the muivement, who hae taken a pledge o lealty tae Osama bin Laden, or the hintle mair numerous "al-Qaeda-linkit" individuals who hae unnergane trainin in ane o its camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq or Sudan, but no taken ony pledge.
Al-Qaeda ideologues enveesion a complete break frae aw foreign influences in Muslim kintras, an the creation o a new Islamic warld wide caliphate. Reportit beliefs include that a Christian-Jewish alliance is conspirin tae destroy Islam. Unner Salafist jihadism thay believe that the killin o ceevilians is releegiously sanctioned, an thay ignore holy text which forbids the murther o ceevilians an an aw internecine fechtin.
Al-Qaeda is responsible for instigatin sectarian violence amang Muslims an aw. Al-Qaeda is intolerant o nan-Sunni branches o Islam an denoonces them wi excommunications cried "takfir". Al-Qaeda leaders regaird leeberal Muslims, Shias, Sufis, Ahmadiyyas an ither sects as heretics an hae issued attacks on thair mosques an gatherins. Examples o sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, Sadr Ceety bombins, Ashoura Massacre an Aprile 2007 Baghdad bombins.
Designation as terrorist organization[eedit | eedit soorce]
Al-Qaeda haes been designatit a terrorist organization bi the follaein kintras an internaitional organisations:
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Atwan 2006, p. 40
- "The Future of Terrorism: What al-Qaida Really Wants – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International". Der Spiegel. September 11, 2001. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- The Daily Telegraph. London https://archive.is/oW5v. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2012-07-20. Missing or empty
- "Jihadists Want Global Caliphate". ThePolitic.com. July 27, 2005. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- John Pike. "Al-Qaida". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Burke, Jason (March 21, 2004). "What exactly does al-Qaeda want?". The Guardian. London.
- Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism and the Spread of Sunni Theofascism retrieved 3 June 2012
- Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University. p. 48. ISBN 978-0801890550.
- Livesey, Bruce (January 25, 2005). "Special Reports – The Salafist Movement: Al Qaeda's New Front". PBS Frontline. WGBH educational foundation. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
- Wilkinson, Paul (2011). Terrorism Versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 978-0415587990.
- Bergen 2006, p. 75.
- United States v. Usama bin Laden et al., S (7) 98 Cr. 1023, Testimony of Jamal Ahmed Mohamed al-Fadl (S.D.N.Y. February 6, 2001).
- Gunaratna 2002, pp. 95–96. "Al-Qaeda's global network, as we know it today, was created while it was based in Khartoum, from December 1991 till May 1996. To coordinate its overt and covert operations as Al-Qaeda's ambitions and resources increased, it developed a decentralized, regional structure. [...] As a global multinational, Al-Qaeda makes its constituent nationalities and ethnic groups, of which there are several dozen, responsible for a particular geographic region. Although its modus operandi is cellular, familial relationships play a key role."
- "How al Qaeda works: What the organization's subsidiaries say about its strength", by Leah Farrall, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2011
- "The al-Qaeda Brand Died Last week". Forbes. September 6, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Wright 2006, pp. 107–108, 185, 270–271
- Wright 2006, p. 270.
- Fu'ad Husayn `Al-Zarqawi, "The Second Generation of al-Qa’ida, Part Fourteen," Al-Quds al-Arabi, July 13, 2005
- Ranstorp, Magnus (2009). Unconventional Weapons and International Terrorism. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 978-0415484398.
- Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia – (2011) – Barbara A. Weightman
- Security strategy and transatlantic relations (2006) Roland Dannreuther
- Jihad and Just War in the War on Terror (2011) Alia Brahimi
- Australian Government. "Listing of Terrorist Organisations". Retrieved July 3, 2006.
- Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. "Entities list". Retrieved July 3, 2006.
- Commission of the European Communities (October 20, 2004). "Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament" (DOC). Retrieved June 11, 2007.
- "La France face au terrorisme" (PDF) (in (in French)). Secrétariat général de la défense nationale (France). Retrieved August 6, 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
- "The Hindu : Centre bans Al-Qaeda". Hinduonnet.com. April 9, 2002. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
- "Summary of indictments against Al-Qaeda terrorists in Samaria". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. March 21, 2006. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Diplomatic Bluebook (2002). "B. Terrorist Attacks in the United States and the Fight Against Terrorism" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2007.
- Korean Foreign Ministry (August 14, 2007). "Seoul confirms release of two Korean hostages in Afghanistan". Archived frae the oreeginal on December 15, 2007. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
- General Intelligence and Security Service. "Annual Report 2004" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2007.
- NATO. "Press Conference with NATO Secretary General, Lord Robertson". Retrieved October 23, 2006.
- NATO Library (2005). "AL QAEDA" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2007.
- "Russia Outlaws 17 Terror Groups; Hamas, Hezbollah Not Included". Archived frae the oreeginal on November 14, 2006.
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs Sweden (March – June 2006). "Radical Islamist Movements in the Middle East" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2007. Check date values in:
- "Report on counter-terrorism submitted by Switzerland to the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001)" (PDF). December 20, 2001. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on June 9, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
- ""Türkiye'de halen faaliyetlerine devam eden başlıca terör örgütleri listesi" (Emniyet Genel Müdürlügü)". Egm.gov.tr. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
- United Kingdom Home Office. "Proscribed terrorist groups". Retrieved July 3, 2006.
- "Security Council Resolutions Related to the Work of the Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 1267 (1999) Concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and Associated Individuals and Entities". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
- United States Department of State. "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". Archived frae the oreeginal on June 28, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2006.