Vitoria-Gasteiz

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Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria (Spainyie)
Gasteiz (Basque)
Municipality
260px
Virgen Blanca Square o Vitoria-Gasteiz

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Haec est Victoria quae vincit
(This is Victoria which triumphs)
Vitoria-Gasteiz is located in Basque Country
Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
Location o Vitoria-Gasteiz athin the Basque Kintra
Vitoria-Gasteiz is located in Spain
Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
Location o Vitoria-Gasteiz athin Spain
Coordinates: 42°51′N 2°41′W / 42.850°N 2.683°W / 42.850; -2.683
Kintra  Spain
Autonomous commonty  Basque Kintra
Province Álava
Comarca Vitoria
Foondit 1181
Government
 • Alcalde Javier Maroto (Fowkpairty)
Area
 • Total 276.81 km2 (106.88 sq mi)
Elevation 525 m (1,722 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 242,084
 • Density 870/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Demonym Vitoriano, -na
Gasteiztarra
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 01001 - 01015
Offeecial leid(s) Spainyie, Basque
Website Offeecial wabsteid

Vitoria-Gasteiz is the caipital ceety o the province o Álava an o the autonomous commonty o the Basque Kintra in northren Spain. The ceety o Vitoria lairgely maintains it's medieval traces in the auld toun an it haulds the Hoose o Pairlament, heidquarters o the govrenent an the Lehendakari's offeecial residency. The ceety haes a population o 242,084 fowk (2014) an is the seicont lairgest ceety in the autonomous commonty. The dwellers o the ceety are cried Vitorianos or Gasteiztarras, while tradeetionally they are dubbit Babazorros (Basque for 'bean eaters').

Vitoria is a multicultural ceety wi strenths in the airts, commerce, eddication, halthcare, research, airchitectural conservation, oenology an gastronomy.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the year 581 the Visigoth keeng Liuvigild foondit the ceety o Victoriacum, tryin tae emulate the Roman foondations, as a celebration o the victory against the Vascones near wha is assumit tae be the hill occupee'd bi the primitive veelage o Gasteiz. This housomeivver is no sufficiently pruiven, an some historians an experts believe that Victoriacum wis locatit no on the steid o present-day Vitoria-Gasteiz but nearbi, probably at the fuit o Munt Gorbea whaur thare is a veelage cried Vitoriano.

In the year 1181, Sancho VI the Wise, Keeng o Navarre foondit the toun o Nueva Victoria as a defensive ootpost on tap o a hill at the steid o the previous dounset o Gasteiz. In 1200, the toun wis captured bi the troops o Alfonso VIII o Castile, who annexed the toun tae the Kinrick o Castile. The toun wis progressively enlairgit an in 1431 it wis grantit the title o Ceety bi Keeng Juan II o Castile. In 1463, it wis ane o the five foondin villas o the Britherhuid o Álava alangside Sajazarra, Miranda de Ebro, Pancorbo an Salvatierra.

Vitoria-Gasteiz in the 17t hunderyear

The Battle o Vitoria o the Peninsular War occurred near Vitoria-Gasteiz alang the river Zadorra on 21 Juin 1813. An allee'd Breetish, Portuguese, an Spainyie airmy unner General the Marquess o Wellington brak the French airmy unner Joseph Bonaparte an Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The victory assured the eventual end o French control in Spain. Thare is a monument commemoratin this battle in the main square o the ceety kent as the Monument tae Unthirldom - Monumento a la Independencia.

When news came tae Vienna in late Julie o that year, Johann Nepomuk Mälzel commissioned Ludwig van Beethoven tae compone a symphony, the op. 91 Wellingtons Sieg oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria or Siegessymphonie.

Wirk began on Institute for Middle Education in 1843, wi clesses beginnin durin the 1853-54 academic year. It is nou the current heidquarters o the Basque Pairlament an umwhile the convent o Santa Clara. The Free Varsity open in the wak o the revolution o 1868. The Varsity operatit frae 1869, tae juist prior tae the 1873-1874 term, lairgely acause o the seicont Carlist War. Chief academics wur Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa, Julián Apraiz, Federico Baraibar, an so on. This latter, great Hellenist (1851–1918), wis amang the first teachers o Basque in Vitoria-Gasteiz an aw as a aff-seellabus subject.

Durin the Spainyie transition tae democracy, the Kirk o St. Francis o Assisi wis the scene o the Mairch 3 Killin o 1976 efter clashes atween polis an strikin wirkers. Unner the orders o Interior Meenister Manuel Fraga, the polis stormit on a shootin spree intae a packit kirk intae which demonstrators haed retreatit, resultin in five deid an ower 100 woondit.

On 20 Mey 1980, bi decision o the Basque Pairlament, Vitoria-Gasteiz became the caipital o the Basque Kintra.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Foronda-Txokiza (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 18.7
(65.7)
21.5
(70.7)
26.6
(79.9)
29.1
(84.4)
33.0
(91.4)
37.4
(99.3)
38.4
(101.1)
40.8
(105.4)
37.2
(99.0)
29.3
(84.7)
22.2
(72.0)
20.3
(68.5)
40.8
(105.4)
Average heich °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.5
(50.9)
13.3
(55.9)
14.5
(58.1)
18.7
(65.7)
22.0
(71.6)
25.3
(77.5)
25.7
(78.3)
23.2
(73.8)
17.5
(63.5)
12.1
(53.8)
9.0
(48.2)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.9
(42.6)
7.9
(46.2)
9.2
(48.6)
12.9
(55.2)
15.9
(60.6)
18.7
(65.7)
19.1
(66.4)
16.6
(61.9)
12.4
(54.3)
7.9
(46.2)
5.6
(42.1)
11.5
(52.7)
Average laich °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
1.4
(34.5)
2.4
(36.3)
3.9
(39.0)
7.1
(44.8)
9.8
(49.6)
12.1
(53.8)
12.5
(54.5)
10.1
(50.2)
7.2
(45.0)
3.6
(38.5)
2.2
(36.0)
6.1
(43.0)
Record laich °C (°F) −17.8
(0.0)
−15.4
(4.3)
−9.2
(15.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.0
(33.8)
3.2
(37.8)
0.8
(33.4)
0.2
(32.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−11.5
(11.3)
−17.8
(0.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 76
(2.99)
65
(2.56)
61
(2.4)
86
(3.39)
70
(2.76)
51
(2.01)
43
(1.69)
45
(1.77)
42
(1.65)
74
(2.91)
89
(3.5)
80
(3.15)
779
(30.67)
humidity 83 79 73 72 71 71 71 71 71 77 82 84 75
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 10 10 9 12 10 6 5 5 6 9 10 11 103
Avg. snawy days 3 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 11
Mean monthly sunshine hours 82 106 145 154 182 207 239 221 178 137 95 73 1,830
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meterología[1]

Economy an demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The economy o Vitoria-Gasteiz is diverse, an mony manufacturin companies hae operations thare, includin Mercedes-Benz, Michelin, Gamesa [1] an Heraclio Fournier, the latter bein heidquairtered thare. The ceety haes been rankit seicont in staundart o livin amang aw ceeties in Spain, an first as tae green auries an cultural places per caipita.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Muisic[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vitoria-Gasteiz hosts twa annual internaitional muisic festivals:

Streets in Vitoria-Gasteiz

Local festivities[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Andre Maria Zuriaren jaiak festival is celebratit ivery year frae the 4t tae the 9t o August in honour o the patron saunt o the ceety, an features a programme o special events, activities an free open-air concerts.

Varsities[eedit | eedit soorce]

The leeberal airts section o the Varsity o the Basque Kintra is based in the sooth pairt o the ceety. Focusin on history an linguistics, the Álava campus is an aa hame o the Faculty o Pharmacy, as well as some ither technical, teachin an business relatit degrees.

Its oreegins date back frae 1847 when the first Escuela Normal de Maestros de Álava wis established. A whole ither nummer o colleges an faculties wur adoptit in 1978 bi the emergin Varsity o the Basque Kintra.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bi road: Vitoria is connectit baith wi the rest o the Basque caipital an wi Madrid, acause the ceety is a step on the N-1/A-1. Thare are twa motorweys in the municipality an a futur motorwey service: The N-1 Madrid-Irun, the N-620 Vitoria-Altube an its connection wi the AP-68 Logroño-Bilbao, an as o the end o 2009, the new AP-1 atween Vitoria an Eibar, an attempt tae alleviate the problems caused bi congestit traffec on the N-1/A-1.

Bi rail: The Madrid-Irun in Vitoria is ane o its maist important stops. Hauf a dozen trains each day linkin the ceety wi the Spainyie caipital, heichlichtin the service Alvia (At 10.09 in the fore-nuin), which, via Valladolid, uisses the infrastructur o the AVE tae arrive in 3 oors 43 minutes tae Madrid. Thare are great connections wi Castile an León, Galicie, Catalonie, Alicante, Asturias, Lisbon an Paris an aw. Amang the deficits wirth heichlichtin are the lack o rail services connectin wi Andalusie (nane) an the lack o a rail link wi Bilbao. In 2013 a heich-speed line is expectit tae inaugurate tae connect Vitoria wi Madrid, Bilbao an San Sebastián amang ither ceeties.

Bi air: The ceety is servit bi Vitoria Airport.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns – Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vitoria-Gasteiz is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Balio Klimatologiko Normalak. Foronda-Txokiza". AEMET. Retrieved 2013-08-21. 
  2. "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]