Municipalities o Finland
The municipalities (Finnish: kunta; Swadish: kommun) represent the local level o admeenistration in Finland an act as the fundamental, sel-govrenin admeenistrative units o the kintra. The entire kintra is incorporatit intae municipalities an legally, aw municipalities are equal, although certain municipalities are cried ceeties. Municipalities hae the richt tae levy a flat percentual income tax, which is atween 16 an 20 percent, an they provide twa thirds o public services. Municipalities control mony community services, such as schuils, health care an the watter supply, an local streets. They dae no maintain heich-gates, set laws or keep polis forces — these tasks are the responsibility o the central govrenment.
Table o contents
Govrenment an taxation
Municipalities hae council-manager government, i.e. they are govrened bi an electit cooncil (kunnanvaltuusto, kommunfullmäktige), which is legally autonomous an answers anerlie tae the voters. The size o the cooncil is proportional tae the population, the extremes being 9 in Sottunga an 85 in Helsinki. Municipal managers (kaupunginjohtaja, stadsdirektör for ceeties, kunnanjohtaja, kommunsdirektör for ither municipalities) are ceevil servants named bi the cooncil. The ceety manager o Helsinki is cried ylipormestari/överborgmästare "Laird Mayor" for historical reasons.
There wur previously nae mayors in Finland, but efter a chynge in law, Tampere wis first ceety tae elect a mayor (pormestari/borgmästare) in 2007. The mayor is no, housomeivver, currently electit directly, but bi the municipal cooncil. The mayor acts as municipal manager an as a speaker o the municipal cooncil.
The municipal tax is a flat income tax that is levied on lawer income levels than state taxes, which in contrast are progressive taxes. The lawest tax o 16% is foond in Kauniainen, while a 20% tax is in the anither extreme. Municipalities an aa receive fundin directly frae the state (valtionapu). Municipalities levy a property tax on property, which is comparatively law. It is heicher for simmer cottages or ither property intendit for leisur. Corporate tax cried yhteisövero, "community tax", is an aw a source o income. Some functions are fundit baith bi the municipality an the state, e.g. AMK schuils.
The municipal tax, although in principle a flat tax, is affectit bi deductions, such that the real average tax percentage is lawer than the nominal rate. Municipal taxes are collectit bi the state (Verohallinto) an paid tae the municipalities.
Although municipalities dae no hae polis or legislative pouers, local ordinances concernin traffic can be set, an municipal pairkin inspectors can give pairkin tickets. Municipalities are legal persons an can appear in an admeenistrative court. Likewise, the state o Finland is a separate legal person.
As o 2011, there are 336 municipalities in Finland, o which 108 are ceeties. 19 municipalities wur unilingually Swadish (16 in the autonomous Åland an three in Ostrobothnie). 43 municipalities wur bilingual: 22 wi Swadish as the majority leid (aw but five in Ostrobothnie an Åboland) an 21 wi Finnish as the majority leid (aw but five in the historical province o Uusimaa).
Although there are exceptions, the line atween a ceety an a smaw toun or rural municipality can be drawn at the ceety o Hamina wi 21,402 inhabitants. In the population rankin, abuin Hamina there are anerlie ceeties (an their surroondin auries). Housomeivver, there are mony ceties wi hintle smawer populations than Hamina. Finland's smawest ceety, Kaskinen, dates back tae 1785 but haed a population o anerlie 1,430 (31 Januar 2011).
The auries o the municipalities vary, as the population is the primary criterion for formin a municipality. The lairgest are foond in Lapland, o which the lairgest is Inari at 17,333.77 km² (130 km square). The smawest municipalities are vera smaw touns. Kaskinen is an independent toun wi the land aurie o anerile 10.49 km². Kauniainen, which wis oreeginally a corporation in Espoo, is anerlie 6.00 km².
Municipalities wur oreeginally parishes. The auld wird for a municipality is pitäjä, 'keeper', acause when the seestem was institutit, ane municipality kept ane meenister. Furthermair, there wis a seestem o tax auries, which wis no necessarily convergent. Furthermair, ceeties wur chairtered separately. Till 1977 municipalities wur dividit intae ceeties (kaupunki, stad), mercat touns (kauppala, köping) an rural municipalities (maalaiskunta, landskommun). The mercat touns wur abolished an renamed as ceeties. The rest o the municipalities wur classifeed as 'ither municipalities'. Aw municipalities cried maalaiskunta wur eventually either merged tae their parent ceeties or chyngit their names. Frae 1995 onwards anerlie 'municipality' is recognized bi law an ony municipality is alloued tae caw itsel a ceety if it so wishes.
Each municipality haes a destinct coat o airms. It is postit tae the borders an shown in offeecial documents advertisin the municipality. An aw, municipalities mey hae a logo destinct frae a coat o airms.
Destinctively, the caipital aurie, or Greater Helsinki, haes nae special arrangements. The aurie consists o fower entirely independent ceeties that form a continuous conurbation. Greater Helsinki haes grown in population an aurie relatively quickly: the nearbi municipalities, considered rural anerlie 50 years ago, hae become suburbs, an the growth is projectit tae continue. A state-imposed merger o Helsinki an a pairt o Sipoo, a rural, 40% Swadish-speakin municipality adjacent tae Greater Helsinki, wis recently appruivit bi the govrenment, coonter tae the opinion o the Sipoo municipal cooncil. This aurie will effectively become a new (an Finnish-speakin) suburb wi multiple times the inhabitants than there are in Sipoo.
Mergers an reform
There is currently a heatit poleetical debate in Finland aboot reformin the municipality seestem. Essentially, a lairge number o smaw municipalities is seen as detrimental tae the proveesion o public services, haein been oreeginatit frae a time when horses an carriages wur uised frae transport, an there hae been suggestions o state-imposed mergers. A committee led bi umwhile Meenister for Regional an Municipal Affairs Hannes Manninen (Kuntaliitto) favours a seestem whaur municipalities wad be units o at least 20,000–30,000 inhabitants, cf. the current median at 4,700. The motion haes been inspired bi a similar reform in Denmark (see Municipalities o Denmark). Umwhile govrenment (Vanhanen II), housomeivver, planned tae no impose mergers.
Recently, a lairge number o voluntary mergers hae been agreed on. 14 mergers wur completit in 2007 an ane in 2008. In 2009, there wur even mair, an mony o these mergers consolidatit mair than twa municipalities. Several ceeties mergit wi surroondin rural municipalities in Hämeenlinna, Loviisa, Salo, Kouvola, Seinäjoki, Naantali, Kauhava, Lohja, Ekenäs, Jyväskylä an Oulu in 2009. In total, there were 30 mergers, involvin 92 municipalities, that reduce the number o municipalities bi 62. The year 2009 an aw marked the end o the last maalaiskunta, a municipality surroondin a ceety but sharin the name, in Jyväskylä.
Municipalities bi regions
- Municipalities o Central Finland
- Municipalities o Finland Proper
- Municipalities o Kainuu
- Municipalities o Kymenlaakso
- Municipalities o Lapland
- Municipalities o North Karelie
- Municipalities o Sooth Karelie
- Municipalities o Ostrobothnie
- Municipalities o Central Ostrobothnie
- Municipalities o Northren Ostrobothnie
- Municipalities o Soothren Ostrobothnie
- Municipalities o Pirkanmaa
- Municipalities o Satakunta
- Municipalities o Northren Savonie
- Municipalities o Southren Savonie
- Municipalities o Tavastie Proper
- Municipalities o Päijänne Tavastie
- Municipalities o Uusimaa
- Municipalities o Eastren Uusimaa
- Municipalities o Åland
- The thicker lines demarcate regions o Finland.
See an aw
- Leet o Finnish municipalities
- Leet o Finnish municipalities bi population
- Leet o Finnish municipalities bi aurie
- Leet o ceeties an touns in Finland
- Leet o umwhile municipalities o Finland
- Kuntaliitto. Ajankohtaiset kuntaliitokset, 2007. http://www.kunnat.net/k_peruslistasivu.asp?path=1;29;348;4827;50631