Mukacheve

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Mukacheve (Мукачеве)
Mukacheve town haw

Flag

Coat of arms
Map o Zakarpattia Oblast wi Mukacheve.
Mukacheve (Мукачеве) is located in Ukraine
Mukacheve (Мукачеве)
Mukacheve (Мукачеве)
Location o Mukacheve
Coordinates: 48°27′00″N 22°45′00″E / 48.45000°N 22.75000°E / 48.45000; 22.75000Coordinates: 48°27′00″N 22°45′00″E / 48.45000°N 22.75000°E / 48.45000; 22.75000
Kintra
Oblast
Raion
Banner o Ukraine Ukraine
Coat of Arms of Transcarpathian Oblast.png Zakarpattia Oblast
Mukacheve Raion
Foondit 896
Government
 • Mayor Zoltán Lengyel[1]
Area
 • Land 27.9 km2 (10.8 sq mi)
Population (2008)
 • Total 93,738
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 89600
Area code(s) +380 3131
Website Mukachevo. City Council

Mukacheve (Ukrainian: Мукачеве; see name section) is a ceety locatit in the valley of the Latorica river in the Zakarpattia Oblast (province), in soothwastren Ukraine. Servin as the admeenistrative centre o the Mukacheve Raion (district), the ceety itsel is designatit as a separate raion athin the oblast an aw. The population in 1989 wis 91,000, in 2004 77,300 an is nou 93,738 (As o 2008).

The ceety is nou a rail terminus an heich-gate junction, an haes beer, wine, tobacco, fuid, textile, timber an furnitur industries. Durin the Cauld War it wis hame tae Mukacheve air base combined wi a radar station.

Mukacheve haes a Ukrainian majority (77.1%) wi a significant minority o Roushies (9.0%), Hungarians (8.5%), Germans (1.9%), an Roma (1.4%).[2]

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are mony different weys tae name Mukacheve. In Ukrainian it is uisually spelled as Mukacheve while Мукачів (Mukachiv) is sometimes uised in Ukrainian an aw.[3] Its name in Rusyn is either spelled Мукачево (Mukachevo), an aw Mukacheve is a Roushie transliteration an aw-Roushie: Мукачево‎- as well as a name adoptit bi the local authorities an portrayed on the ceety's coat o airms. ither names are Hungarian: Munkács; Romanie: Muncaci, Munceag; Pols Mukaczewo; Slovak an Czech: Mukačevo; German: Munkatsch

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early history[eedit | eedit soorce]

Archaeological excavation suggest that early dounsets existit here afore the Middle Ages. For example a Celtic oppidum an metal wirks centre that existit in the 3rd-1st century BC wur foond atween the Halish an Lovachka muntains. A Thracian fort of the Airn Age (10t century BC) wis foond on the muntain o Tupcha. Aroond the 1st century the aurie wis occupee'd bi the Carpi fowk who displacit the local Celts frae the aurie.

Hungarian rule[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 895 the Hungarian tribes entered the Carpathie Basin throu the Verecke Pass, aboot 60 km (37 mi) north o present day Mukacheve. Durin the next century they established the Hungarians an Munkacheve became a regional centre o pouer o Hungarian keengs. In 1397, the toun an its surroondin wis grantit bi Keeng Sigismund o Hungary tae his vassal the Ruthenian prince Theodor Koriatovich, who settled mony Ruthenies in the territory. Durin the 15t century, the ceety prospered an became a prominent craft an trade centre for the region. In 1445, the toun became a Hungarian free ryal toun. It wis grantit the richts o Magdeburg law an aw.

Durin the 16t century, Mukacheve became pairt o the Principality o Transylvanie. The 17t century (frae 1604-1711) wis a time o continuous struggle against the expansionist intentions o the Habsburg Empire for the Principality. In 1687 the anti-Habsburg Revolt o Imre Thököly stairtit oot frae Mukacheve. The region played a important role in Rákóczi's War o unthirldom an aw.

Austrian control an revolts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the defeat o Francis II Rákóczi the ceety came unner Austrian control in the mid-18t century as pairt o the Kinrick o Hungary an wis made a key fortress o the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1726, the Palanok Castle an the toun, afore 1711 awned bi the Rákóczi faimily, wis gien bi the Habsburgs tae the Schönborn faimily, who wur responsible for a expansion o the toun. They settled mony Germans in the territory an aw, tharebi causin a economic boom o the region. Durin 1796-1897, the ceety's castle, till then a strang fortress, became a preeson. The Greek naitional hero Alexander Ypsilanti wis impreesoned at the Palanok Castle atween 1821 an 1823.

Mukacheve durin an efter the wars[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1919, efter the American-Rusyns greit wi Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk tae incorporate Carpathie Ruthenie intae Czechoslovakie, the whole o Carpathie Ruthenie wis occupee'd bi Czechoslovak troops. On 4 Juin 1920, Mukacheve offeecially became pairt o Czechoslovakie bi the Treaty o Trianon. In November 1938, a pairt o the territory o the umwhile Kinrick o Hungary wis re-annexed bi Hungary as pairt o the First Vienna Awaird. Mukacheve wis then the anerly toun in Hungary wi a Jewish majority till 1944, when aw the Jews wur deportit tae Auschwitz bi the Nazi German Eichmann Commando. The Hungarian Jewish commonty wis the last Jewish commonty in Europe tae be subjectit tae the concentration camps.

In the end o 1944, the Red Airmy stormit Carpathie Ruthenie. At first the territory wis gien tae the reestabilished Czechoslovakie, then became pairt o the Soviet Union bi a treaty atween the twa kintras, later in 1945. The Soviet Union began a policy o expulsion o the Hungarian population. In 1945, the ceety wis cedit taethe Ukrainian SSR (nou Ukraine). In 2002, Mukacheve haes been the seat o the Roman Catholic diocese comprisin Transcarpathie.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Historical[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the census o 1910, thare wur 17,275 fowk livin in Mukacheve. O these, 44.4% wur Jewish, 23.6% Greek Catholic, 20.4% Roman Catholic, 10.3% Calvinist an 1.1% Lutheran. Oot o its population o 17 275 inhabitants 12,686 (73,44%) wur Hungarians.

In 1921, 21,000 fowk livit in Mukacheve. O these, 48 percent wur Jews, 24 percent wur Ukrainians, an 22 percent wur Hungarians.[3]

The ceety's population in 1966 wis 50,500. O these, 60% wur Ukrainians, 18 percent Hungarians, 10% Roushies an 6% Jews.[3]

Current[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae the 2001 census, 82,200 fowk live in Mukachevo. Its population includes:[4]

  • Ukrainians (77.1%)
  • Roushies (9.0%)
  • Hungarians (8.5%)
  • Germans (1.9%)
  • Roma (1.4%)
  • Jews (1.1%)

Airchitectural landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Palanok Castle, 14t century. The castle o Munkács played a important role durin the anti-Habsburg revolts in this territory an present-day Slovakie (1604–1711), especially at the beginnin o the anti-Habsburg Revolt o Imre Thököly (1685–1688), as well as at the beginnin o the revolt o Ferenc II. Rákóczi (early 18th century). This important fortress became a preeson frae the end o the 18th century an wis uised till 1897. The Greek naitional hero Alexander Ypsilanti wis impreesoned in Munkács castle frae 1821 tae 1823.
  • Saunt Nicholas Monastery
  • Firthen kirk built in the Ukrainian airchitectural style, 18t century

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin towns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mukachevo is twinned wi:

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bibliography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]