Statue o Liberty
|Statue o Liberty|
New York Ceety, New York, U.S.
|Dedicatit||October 28, 1886|
|Restored||1938, 1984–1986, 2011–2012|
|Sculptor||Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi|
|Veesitors||3.2 million (in 2009)|
|Govrenin body||U.S. Naitional Pairk Service|
|Designatit||1984 (8t session)|
|State Pairty||Unitit States|
|Region||Europe an North Americae|
|Offeecial name: Statue o Liberty Naitional Monument, Ellis Island an Liberty Island|
|Designatit||October 15, 1966|
|Designatit||October 15, 1924|
|Designatit bi||Preses Calvin Coolidge|
|Designatit||September 14, 1976|
The Statue o Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the Warld; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed bi Frédéric Bartholdi an dedicatit on October 28, 1886. The statue, a gift tae the Unitit States frae the fowk o Fraunce, is of a robed female figur representin Libertas, the Roman goddess o freedom, who bears a torch an a tabula ansata (a tablet evokin the law) upon which is inscribit the date o the American Declaration o Independence, Julie 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon o freedom an o the Unitit States: a welcomin signal tae immigrants arrivin frae abroad.
Bartholdi wis inspired bi French law professor an politeecian Édouard René de Laboulaye, who commentit in 1865 that ony monument raised tae American independence would properly be a jynt project o the French an American fowks. Due tae the troubled poleetical situation in Fraunce, wirk on the statue did nae commence till the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue an the Americans provide the steid an build the pedestal. Bartholdi completit the heid an the torch-bearin airm afore the statue wis fully designed, an these pieces wur exhibitit for publicity at internaitional expositions.
The torch-bearin airm displayed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 and in New York's Madison Square Pairk frae 1876 tae 1882. Fundraisin proved difficult, especially for the Americans, an bi 1885 wirk on the pedestal wis threatened due tae lack o funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer o the Warld stairtit a drive for donations tae complete the project that attractit mair than 120,000 contributors, maist o whom gave less than a dollar. The statue wis constructit in Fraunce, shipped owerseas in crates, an assembled on the completit pedestal on what wis then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion wis marked bi New York's first ticker-tape parade an a dedication ceremony presidit ower bi Preses Grover Cleveland.
The statue wis admeenistered bi the Unitit States Lichthoose Board till 1901 an then bi the Department o War; syne 1933 it haes been maintained bi the Naitional Pairk Service. The statue wis closed for renovation for much o 1938. In the early 1980s, it wis foond tae hae deterioratit tae such an extent that a major restoration wis required. While the statue wis closed frae 1984 tae 1986, the torch an a lairge pairt o the internal structur wur replaced.
Efter the September 11 attacks in 2001, it wis closed for reasons o safety an security; the pedestal reopened in 2004 an the statue in 2009, wi leemits on the nummer o visitors allowed tae ascend tae the crown. The statue, includin the pedestal an base, wis closed for a year till October 28, 2012, so that a secondary staircase an ether safety features could be installed; Liberty Island remained open. However, ane day efter the reopenin, Liberty Island closed due tae the effects o Hurricane Sandy, an the island remains aff leemits tae the public. Public access tae the balcony surroundin the torch haes been barred for safety reasons syne 1916. The statue will reopen tae the public bi Julie 4, 2013.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "Statue of Liberty National Monument". National Park Service. 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
- Schneiderman, R.M. (2010-06-28). "For tourists, Statue of Liberty is nice, but no Forever 21". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
- National Park Service (1994). National Register of Historic Places, 1966–1994: Cumulative List Through January 1, 1994. Washington DC: National Park Service. p. 502. ISBN 978-0-89133-254-1.
- "National Monument Proclamations under the Antiquities Act". National Park Service. 2003-01-16. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
- "Statue of Liberty National Monument" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. September 14, 1976. Retrieved 2011-10-12.
- "Interior Department announces Statue of Liberty to reopen by July 4". New York Post. Retrieved 19 March 2013.