Silves, Portugal

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A panorama of Silves, showing the Moorish Castle
A panorama of Silves, showing the Moorish Castle
Banner o Silves
Coat of airms o Silves
Coat airms
Kintra Portugal
Intermunic. comm.Algarve
 • PresesRogério Pinto (PSD)
 • Total680.06 km2 (262.57 sq mi)
 • Total37,126
 • Density55/km2 (140/sq mi)
Time zoneWET/WEST (UTC+0/+1)
Coordinates37°11′13″N 8°26′20″W / 37.18694°N 8.43889°W / 37.18694; -8.43889Coordinates: 37°11′13″N 8°26′20″W / 37.18694°N 8.43889°W / 37.18694; -8.43889

Silves (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsiɫvɨʃ]) is a municipality in the Portuguese Algarve o soothren Portugal.[1] The population in 2011 wis 37,126,[2] in an aurie o 680.06 km².[3] The urbanisit aurie includes approximately 11,000 indwallers. Silves is the umwhile caipital o the Algarve an is o great historical importance.[4]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The historical Cathedral o Silves wi Manueline portico
A street in Silves

The region o Silves haes been inhabited syne the Palaeolithic, as attestit bi airchaeological remains, includin several menhirs. The river Arade, which wis navigable in historical times, linkit the hinterland tae the open ocean an alloued the transport o produce an commerce. The toun o Silves (Cilpes) wis possibly foondit durin the times o Roman domination, when the region wis pairt o the Lusitanie province.

Efter 713, when the Moors invadit Iberie, Silves became pairt o the Umayyad Emirate o Córdoba unner the Arabic name o Shilb (شلب). In the 10t hunderyear it wis ane o the maist important touns o wastren Al-Andalus. Silves became a unthirlt taifa in 1027 unner the rule o Ibn Mozaine an his son, who wis dethroned in 1051 bi al-Mu'tadid, the govrenor o Seville. al-Mu'tamid ibn 'Abbad, the son o al-Mu'tadid an a famous poet, ruled the taifa o Silves till 1091. Efter the Almoravid conquest the toun became Almohad in 1156. In 1189 King Sancho I o Portugal conquered the toun wi the aid o Northren European crusaders,[5] but lost it again tae the Almohads. Periodic raidin expeditions wur sent frae Al-Andalus tae ravage the Iberie Christian kinricks, bringin back buity an slaves. The govrenor o Córdoba attacked Silves in 1191, an teuk 3,000 Christian slaves.[6] Again unner Muslim rule, the ceety wad then prosper tae the pynt o bein cried the Baghdad o the Wast.

The toun wis feenally taken frae the last Muslim king Ibn Afan bi Paio Peres Correia, Grand-Maister o the Order o Santiago in 1242, efter the Alentejo an maist o the coast haed already fawen in 1238. The great mosque wis chyngit intae Silves Cathedral (Sé Catedral). Silves declined in importance thareefter an wis eclipsed in the region bi Faro durin the colonial period. In 1491, the toun wis gien tae queen Leonora bi King João.

Pairts o the Almohad toun waw, constructit frae poured concrete, hae been preservit, as well as the Almedina-gate (Porta de Loulé). Ither sichts include the Santa Misericórdia Kirk wi a fine door in Manueline style (the main bouk o the kirk wis biggit in 1727-28); a museum for cork an the production o bottle corks in a defunct factory which is nou a centre for cultural events cried "Fábrica do Inglês Archived 2021-02-27 at the Wayback Machine (The Inglisman's Factory) an aw; an the municipal museum (Museu Municipal de Arqueologia) wi fyndins frae the palaeolithic onwairds.

The toun is situatit on a hill abuin the Arade River. Silves Castle (Castelo dos Mouros, Moorish Castle) is locatit on the tap o the hill. It occupee's ca. 12,000m². Airchaeological excavations hae shown that the auldest biggins date back tae the 8t hunderyear, the stratigrafie is amaist 6m deep an conteens Airn Age remains as well. The waws are made o reid saundstane (grés de Silves) wi a pisé-core an hae been hivily restored in the 1940s. Protrudin touers o albarra-teep protect the Northren slope. Efter the Christian conquest, the castle servit as the seat o the alcaide-mor (provincial govrenor) till the middle o the 16t hunderyear, efterwairds the touers wur uised as a preeson.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The municipality is crossed bi the Arade River, which wis navigable in historical times an wis key tae the prosperity o the ceety o Silves. The watters o the river shape the dams o Arade an Funcho. The landscape o the municipality is generally hilly. Tae the sooth the municipality borders the Atlantic Ocean.

Silves is built on tap o ane o the lairgest unnergrund aquifers in the sooth o Portugal, The Querença-Silves Aquifer [1] Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, an haes mony orange groves, a fruit introducit bi the Moors.

Human geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Population of
(1801 - 2011)
1801 10,509—    
1849 15,509+47.6%
1900 29,598+90.8%
1930 34,461+16.4%
1960 33,368−3.2%
1981 31,389−5.9%
1991 32,924+4.9%
2001 33,830+2.8%
2004 34,909+3.2%
2011 37,126+6.4%

Admeenistratively, the municipality is dividit intae 6 ceevil pairishes (freguesias):[7]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Detail Regional Map, Algarve-Southern Portugal, ISBN 3-8297-6235-6
  2. Instituto Nacional de Estatística
  3. "Direção-Geral do Território". Archived frae the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 11 Februar 2015.
  4. Grande enciclopédia portuguesa e brasileira: Actualização, Zairol, 1998, ISBN 972-9362-16-5
  5. Charles Wendell David, ed. Narratio de Itinere Navali Peregrinorum Hierosolymam Tendentium et Silviam Capientium, A.D. 1189. In Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 81 (Dec., 1939): 591-676.
  6. Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier
  7. Diário da República. "Law nr. 11-A/2013, page 552 115" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Retrieved 31 Julie 2014.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Freguesia (Pairishes) o Silves