Rembrandt

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Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn - Self-Portrait - Google Art Project.jpg
Born Rembrant Harmenszoon van Rijn
15 Julie 1606(1606-07-15)[1]
Leiden, Dutch Republic (now Netherlands)
Died 4 October 1669(1669-10-04) (aged 63)
Amsterdam, Dutch Republic (now Netherlands)
Naitionality Dutch
Kent for Pentin, Prentmakkin
Notable wirk(s)

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632
Belshazzar's Feast, 1635
The Night Watch, 1642
Bathsheba at Her Bath, 1654

Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, 1662
Muivement Dutch Gowden Age
Baroque

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (Dutch: [ˈrɛmbrɑnt ˈɦɑrmə(n)soːn vɑn ˈrɛin] ( listen); 15 Julie 1606[1] – 4 October 1669) wis a Dutch penter an etcher. An innovative an proleefic master in three media, he is generally conseedert ane o the greatest veesual airtists in the history o airt an the maist important in Dutch airt history.[2] Unlik maist Dutch masters o the 17t century, Rembrandt's warks depict a wide range o style an subject maiter, frae portraits an sel-portraits tae laundscapes, genre scenes, allegorical an historical scenes, biblical an meethological themes as weel as ainimal studies. His contreibutions tae airt came in a period o great walth an cultural achievement that historians cry the Dutch Gowden Age, whan Dutch airt (especially Dutch pentin), awtho in mony weys antithetical tae the Baroque style that dominatit Europe, wis extremely proleefic an innovative, an gae rise tae important new genres. Lik mony airtists o the Dutch Gowden Age, sic as Jan Vermeer o Delft, Rembrandt wis an aw an avid airt collector an dealer.

Rembrandt niver went abraid, but he wis conseederably influenced bi the wark o the Italian masters an Netherlandish airtists that haed studied in Italy, lik Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, an Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens. Haein achieved youthfu success as a portrait penter, Rembrandt's later years war merkit bi personal tragedy an financial haurdships. Yet his etchins an pentins war popular ootthrou his lifetime, his reputation as an airtist remeened heich,[3] an for twenty years he taucht mony important Dutch penters.[4]

Rembrandt's portraits o his contemporaries, sel-portraits an illustrations o scenes frae the Bible are regairdit as his greatest creautive triumphs. His sel-portraits form a unique an intimate biografie, in that the airtist surveyed himsel withoot vanity an wi the utmaist sincerity.[2] Rembrandt's foremaist contreibution in the history o prentmakkin wis his transformation o the etchin process frae a relatively new reproductive technique intae a true airt form, alang wi Jacques Callot. His reputation as the greatest etcher in the history o the medium wis established in his lifetime an niver quaistened syne. Few o his pentins left the Dutch Republic whilst he leeved, but his prents war circulatit ootthrou Europe, an his wider reputation wis ineetially based on them alane.

In his warks he exhibitit knawledge o clessical iconografie, that he mauldit tae fit the requirements o his awn experience; sicweys, the depiction o a biblical scene wis informed bi Rembrandt's knawledge o the speceefic text, his assimilation o clessical composeetion, an his observations o Amsterdam's Jewish population.[5] Acause o his empathy for the human condeetion, he haes been cried "ane o the great prophets o ceevilisation".[6] The French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me wi Rembrandt! Whit sacrilege! Wi Rembrandt, the colossus o Airt! We shoud prostrate oorsels afore Rembrandt an niver compare pnyane wi him!"[7] Francisco Goya, eften conseedert tae be amang the last o the Auld Masters, said "A hae haed three masters: Naitur, Velázquez, an Rembrandt."[8] Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt gaes sae deep intae the mysterious that he says things for that thare are na wirds in ony leid. It is wi juistice that thay cry Rembrandt—magician—that's na easy thrift."[9] The impressionist Max Liebermann said: "Whaniver I see a Frans Hals, A feel lik pentin; whaniver A see a Rembrandt, A feel lik giein up"[10].

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Or possibly 1607 as on 10 Juin 1634 he himself claimed tae be 26 years auld. See Is the Rembrandt Year being celebrated one year too soon? One year too late? an (in Dutch) J. de Jong, Rembrandts geboortejaar een jaar te vroeg gevierd for soorces concerning Rembrandts birth year, especially supportin 1607. However maist soorces continue tae uise 1606.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Gombrich, p. 420.
  3. Gombrich, p. 427.
  4. Clark 1969, pp. 203
  5. Clark 1969, pp. 203–204
  6. Clark 1969, pp. 205
  7. Rodin, Auguste: Art: Conversations with Paul Gsell. (University of California Press, 1984, ISBN 0520038193), p. 85 [Translated by Jacques de Caso and Patricia B. Sanders]. Originally published as L'Art: Entretiens réunis par Paul Gsell. (Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1911)
  8. Protter, Eric: Painters on Painting. (Dover Publications, 1971, ISBN 0486299414 ), p. 98
  9. Wessels, Anton: Van Gogh and the Art of Living: The Gospel According to Vincent van Gogh. (Wipf & Stock, 2013, ISBN 9781625641090)
  10. Molina Cortón, Juan (2014). Dánae - Mito, poder y erotismo en la pintura occidental (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain: Cultiva Libros. pp. Chap. IX.