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Quetzalcoatl (Inglis pronunciation: /ˌkɛtsɑːlˈkoʊɑːtəl/), or Ketzalkoatl, (Clessical Nahuatl: Quetzalcohuātl [ketsaɬˈko.aːtɬ]) is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes frae the Nahuatl leid an haes the meanin o "feathered serpent".[1] The wirship o a feathered serpent deity is first documentit in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD.[2] That period lees athin the Late Preclassic tae Early Classic period (400 BC–600 AD) o Mesoamerican chronologie, an veneration o the figur appears tae hae spread throuoot Mesoamericae bi the Late Classic (600–900 AD).[3]

In the Postclassic period (900 – 1519 AD) the wirship o the feathered serpent deity wis based in the primar Mexican releegious centre o Cholula. It is in this period that the deity is kent tae hae been namit "Quetzalcoatl" bi his Nahua follaeers. In the Maya aurie he wis approximately equivalent tae Kukulcan an Gukumatz, names that roughly translate as "feathered serpent" in different Mayan leids an aw.

In the era follaein the 16t-century Spainyie conquest, a nummer o soorces wur written that conflate Quetzalcoatl wi Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler o the meethico-historic ceety o Tollan. It is a matter of much debate amang historians tae which degree, or whether at aw, thir narratives aboot this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events.[4] Furthermair, early Spainyie soorces written bi clerics tend tae identifee the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl o thir narratives wi aither Hernán Cortés or St. Thomas—an identification which is a soorce o diversity o opinions aboot the natur o Quetzalcoatl an aw.[5]

Amang the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documentit in the historical soorces, Quetzalcoatl wis relatit tae gods o the wind, o Venus, of the dawn, of merchants an o airts, crafts an knawledge. He wis the patron god o the Aztec priestheid, o learnin an knawledge an aw.[6] Quetzalcoatl wis ane o several important gods in the Aztec pantheon alang wi the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca an Huitzilopochtli.

Feathered Serpent deity in Mesoamericae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Feathered Serpent

A feathered serpent deity haes been worshippit bi mony different ethno-poleetical groups in Mesoamerican history. The existence o sic wirship can be seen throu studies o iconografie o different Mesoamerican culturs, in which serpent motifs are frequent. On the basis o the different symbolic seestems uised in portrayals o the feathered serpent deity in different culturs an periods scholars hae interpretit the releegious an symbolic meanin o the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican culturs.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The Nahuatl nouns compoondit intae the proper name "Quetzalcoatl" are: quetzalli, signifyin principally "plumage", but uised tae refer tae the bird an aw—Resplendent Quetzal—renouned for its colourful feathers, an cohuātl "snake". Some scholars hae interpretit the name as haein a metaphorical meanin o "precious twin" syne the wird for plumage wis uised metaphorically aboot precious things an aw an cohuātl haes an addeetional meaning o "twin"
  2. "Teotihuacan: Introduction". Project Temple of Quetzalcoatl, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico/ ASU. 2001-08-20. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  3. Ringle et al. 1998
  4. Nicholson 2001, Carrasco 1992, Gillespie 1989, Florescano 2002
  5. Lafaye 1987, Townsend 2003, Martínez 1980, Phelan 1970
  6. Smith 2001:213