Paracetamol

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Paracetamol
Paracetamol-skeletal.svg
Paracetamol-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Tred namesTylenol (USA), Anacin Aspirin Free (USA), Apra (USA), Crocin (Indie), Feverall (USA), Genapap (USA), Panadol (UK), Panadol (Australie), Panodil (Denmark), Efferalgan (Fraunce), Doliprane (Fraunce) Dafalgan (Fraunce) Alvedon (Swaden)
AHFS/Drugs.commonograph
MedlinePlusa681004
Leecence data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: A
  • US: B (Na risk in non-human studies)
  • safe
Routes o
admeenistration
Oral, rectal, intravenous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability~100%
Metabolism90 tae 95% Hepatic
Biological hauf-life1–4 h
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.002.870
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC8H9NO2
Molar mass151.17 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Density1.263 g/cm3
Meltin pynt169 °C (336 °F) [2][3]
Solubility in watter12.78[1] mg/mL (20 °C)
  (verify)

Paracetamol INN (/ˌpærəˈstəmɒl/ or /ˌpærəˈsɛtəmɒl/), or acetaminophen USAN Listeni/əˌstəˈmɪnəfn/, chemically named N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, is a widely uised ower-the-coonter analgesic (pain reliever) an antipyretic (fiver reducer).

Paracetamol is clessifee'd as a mild analgesic. It is commonly uised for the relief o heidaches an ither minor aches an pains an is a major ingredient in numerous cauld an flu remedies. In combination wi opioid analgesics, paracetamol can an aa be uised in the management o mair severe pain sic as post-surgical pain an providin palliative care in advanced cancer patients.[4] Tho acetaminophen is uised tae treat inflammatory pain, it is nae generally clessifee'd as an NSAID acause it exhibits anly waik anti-inflammatory activity.

The onset o analgesia is approximately 11-29.5 minutes efter oral admeenistration o paracetamol, an its hauf-life is 1–4 oors. While generally safe for uise at recommendit doses (1,000 mg per single dose an up tae 4,000 mg per day for adults),[5] acute owerdoses o paracetamol can cause potentially fatal neer, brain an liver damage an, in rare individuals, a normal dose can dae the same. The risk mey be hichtened bi chronic alcohol abuse. Paracetamol toxicity is the foremost cause o acute liver failure in the Wastren warld, an accoonts for maist drug owerdoses in the Unitit States, the Unitit Kinrick, Australie an New Zealand.[6][7][8][9]

It is the active metabolite o the coal tar–derived phenacetin, ance popular as an analgesic an antipyretic in its awn richt. Houiver, unlik phenacetin an its combinations, paracetamol is nae considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses.[10] The wirds acetaminophen (uised in the Unitit States,[11] Canadae, Japan, Sooth Korea, Hong Kong, an Iran) an paracetamol (uised elsewhaur) baith come frae a chemical name for the compoond: para-acetylaminophenol an para-acetylaminophenol. In some contexts, it is simply abbreviated as APAP, for acetyl-para-aminophenol.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Granberg RA, Rasmuson AC (1999). "Solubility of paracetamol in pure solvents". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 44 (6): 1391–95. doi:10.1021/je990124v. 
  2. Karthikeyan, M.; Glen, R. C.; Bender, A. (2005). "General Melting Point Prediction Based on a Diverse Compound Data Set and Artificial Neural Networks". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 45 (3): 581–590. doi:10.1021/ci0500132. PMID 15921448. 
  3. "melting point data for paracetamol". Lxsrv7.oru.edu. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  4. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2008). "6.1 and 7.1.1". Guideline 106: Control of pain in adults with cancer (PDF). Scotland: National Health Service (NHS). ISBN 978 1 905813 38 4. 
  5. Acetaminophen Drugs.com
  6. Daly FF, Fountain JS, Murray L, Graudins A, Buckley NA (2008). "Guidelines for the management of paracetamol poisoning in Australia and New Zealand—explanation and elaboration. A consensus statement from clinical toxicologists consulting to the Australasian poisons information centres". Med J Aust. 188 (5): 296–301. PMID 18312195. 
  7. Khashab M, Tector AJ, Kwo PY (2007). "Epidemiology of acute liver failure". Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 9 (1): 66–73. doi:10.1007/s11894-008-0023-x. PMID 17335680. 
  8. Hawkins LC, Edwards JN, Dargan PI (2007). "Impact of restricting paracetamol pack sizes on paracetamol poisoning in the United Kingdom: a review of the literature". Drug Saf. 30 (6): 465–79. doi:10.2165/00002018-200730060-00002. PMID 17536874. 
  9. Larson AM, Polson J, Fontana RJ, et al. (2005). "Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study". Hepatology. 42 (6): 1364–72. doi:10.1002/hep.20948. PMID 16317692. 
  10. Bergman K, Müller L, Teigen SW (1996). "The genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of paracetamol: a regulatory (re)view". Mutat Res. 349 (2): 263–88. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(95)00185-9. PMID 8600357. 
  11. Bradley, N (1996). "BMJ should use "paracetamol" instead of "acetaminophen" in its index". BMJ. 313 (7058): 689. PMC 2351967Freely accessible. PMID 8811774. 

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