Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy|
9 September 1828
Yasnaya Polyana, Roushie Empire
20 November 1910 (aged 82)|
Astapovo, Roushie Empire
|Thrift||Novelist, short story writer, playwricht, essayist|
War and Peace|
The Kingdom of God Is Within You
Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Roushie: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, pronounced [lʲef nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪt͡ɕ tɐlˈstoj] ( listen); 9 September [A.S. 28 August] 1828 – 20 November [A.S. 7 November] 1910), an aa kent as Leo Tolstoy, wis a Roushie writer that is regairdit as ane o the greatest authors o aw time. He received multiple nominations for Nobel Prize in Leeteratur ivery year frae 1902 tae 1906, an nominations for Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902 an 1910, an his miss o the prize is a major Nobel prize controversy.
Born tae an aristocratic Roushie faimily in 1828, he is best kent for the novelles War an Peace (1869) an Anna Karenina (1877), eften citit as pinnacles o realist feection. He first achieved leeterar acclaim in his twenties wi his semi-autobiografical trilogy, Bairnheid, Ladheid, an Youth (1852–1856), an Sevastopol Sketches (1855), based upon his experiences in the Crimean War. Tolstoy's feection includes dizens o short stories an several novellas sic as The Daith o Ivan Ilyich (1886), Family Happiness (1859), and Hadji Murad (1912). He an aw wrote plays an numerous filosofical essays.
In the 1870s Tolstoy experienced a profoond moral creesis, follaed bi whit he regairdit as an equally profoond speeritual awaukenin, as ootlined in his non-feection wark A Confession (1882). His leeteral interpretation o the ethical teachins o Jesus, centrein on the Sermon on the Munt, caused him tae acome a fervent Christian anarchist an pacifist. Tolstoy's ideas on nonveeolent reseestance, expressed in sic warks as The Kinrick o God Is Within Ye (1894), war tae hae a profoond impact on sic pivotal 20t-century feegurs as Mahatma Gandhi an Martin Luther King Jr. Tolstoy an aw becam a dedicatit advocate o Georgism, the economic filosofie o Henry George, that he incorporatit intae his writin, pairteecularly Resurrection (1899).
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "Leo Tolstoy". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Nomination Database". old.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- "Proclamation sent to Leo Tolstoy after the 1901 year's presentation of Nobel Prizes". NobelPrize.org (in Inglis). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- Hedin, Naboth (1950-10-01). "Winning the Nobel Prize". The Atlantic (in Inglis). Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- "Nobel Prize Snubs In Literature: 9 Famous Writers Who Should Have Won (Photos)". Huffington Post (in Inglis). 2010-10-07. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
- Beard, Mary (5 November 2013). "Facing death with Tolstoy". The New Yorker.
- Martin E. Hellman, Resist Not Evil in World Without Violence (Arun Gandhi ed.), M.K. Gandhi Institute, 1994, retrieved on 14 December 2006
- King, Jr., Martin Luther; Clayborne Carson; et al. (2005). The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., Volume V: Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959 – December 1960. University of California Press. pp. 149, 269, 248. ISBN 978-0-520-24239-5.