Ketamine

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Ketamine
Ketamine.svg
(S)-Ketamine ball-and-stick model
Clinical data
Tred namesKetalar, ithers
AHFS/Drugs.comConsumer Drug Information
Leecence data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk nae ruled oot)
Addiction
liability
Law–moderate[1]
                                                  
Routes o
admeenistration
Ony[2][3][4][5]
Drog clessNMDA receptor antagonists; General anesthetics; Dissociative hallucinogens; Analgesics; Antidepressants
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability
Protein bindin12–47% (law)[7][9][12]
MetabolismLiver (N-demethylation):[4][13]
Metabolites
Onset o action
  • Intravenous: seiconts[9]
  • Intramuscular: 1–5 min[9][15]
  • Subcutaneous: 15–30 min[15]
  • Insufflation: 5–10 min[9]
  • Bi mooth: 15–30 min[9][15]
Biological hauf-life
  • Ketamine: 2.5–3 oors[9][4]
  • Norketamine: 12 oors[15]
Duration o action
  • Intramuscular: 0.5–2 oors[15]
  • Insufflation: 45–60 min[9]
  • Bi mooth: 1–6+ oors[9][15]
Excretion
Identifiers
SynonymsCI-581; CL-369; CM-52372-2[16]
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.027.095
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC13H16ClNO
Molar mass237.725 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
ChiralityRacemic mixtur:[9]
Meltin pynt258 tae 261 °C (496 tae 502 °F)
  (verify)

Ketamine, sauld unner the brand name Ketalar amang ithers, is a medication mainly uised for stairtin an mainteenin anesthesia.[18] It induces a trance-lik state while providin pyne relief, sedation, an memory loss.[19] Ither uises include for chronic pyne an for sedation in intensive care.[20][21] Hert function, braithin, an airwey reflexes generally remeen functional in its effects.[19] Effects teepically begin within five meenits whan gien bi injection wi the main effects lastin up tae 25 meenits.[18][22]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 374–375. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. Phencyclidine (PCP or angel dust) and ketamine (also known as special K) are structurally related drugs... their reinforcing properties and risks related to compulsive abuse 
  2. Bell, RF; Eccleston, C; Kalso, EA (28 June 2017). "Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain" (PDF). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD003351. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003351.pub3. PMID 28657160. 
  3. Moyse, DW; Kaye, AD; Diaz, JH; Qadri, MY; Lindsay, D; Pyati, S (March 2017). "Perioperative Ketamine Administration for Thoracotomy Pain". Pain Physician. 20 (3): 173–184. PMID 28339431. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Sanjay J. Mathew; Carlos A. Zarate, Jr. (25 November 2016). Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression: The First Decade of Progress. Springer. pp. 8–10, 14–22. ISBN 978-3-319-42925-0. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 September 2017. 
  5. Brayfield, A, ed. (9 January 2017). "Ketamine Hydrochloride: Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference". MedicinesComplete. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  6. Jianren Mao (19 April 2016). Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia. CRC Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-1-4200-8900-4. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 September 2017. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Pascal Kintz (22 March 2014). Toxicological Aspects of Drug-Facilitated Crimes. Elsevier Science. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-0-12-416969-2. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 September 2017. 
  8. Molero P, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Martin-Santos R, Calvo-Sánchez E, Gutiérrez-Rojas L, Meana JJ (May 2018). "Antidepressant Efficacy and Tolerability of Ketamine and Esketamine: A Critical Review". CNS Drugs. 32 (5): 411–420. doi:10.1007/s40263-018-0519-3. PMID 29736744. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Sinner, B; Graf, BM (2008). "Ketamine". In Schüttler, J; Schwilden, H. Modern Anesthetics. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 182. pp. 313–33. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15. ISBN 978-3-540-72813-9. PMID 18175098. 
  10. Alan F. Schatzberg; Charles B. Nemeroff (2017). The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 550–. ISBN 978-1-58562-523-9. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 September 2017. 
  11. Andrew Dickman; Jennifer Schneider (22 September 2016). The Syringe Driver: Continuous Subcutaneous Infusions in Palliative Care. Oxford University Press. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-0-19-873372-0. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 September 2017. 
  12. Frank J. Dowd; Bart Johnson; Angelo Mariotti (3 September 2016). Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry – E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 235–. ISBN 978-0-323-44595-5. 
  13. Hijazi, Y; Boulieu, R (July 2002). "Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 30 (7): 853–8. doi:10.1124/dmd.30.7.853. PMID 12065445. 
  14. Barry Levine (2003). Principles of Forensic Toxicology. Amer. Assoc. for Clinical Chemistry. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-1-890883-87-4. Archived frae the oreeginal on 8 September 2017. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Quibell, R; Prommer, EE; Mihalyo, M; Twycross, R; et al. (March 2011). "Ketamine*". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (Therapeutic Review). 41 (3): 640–9. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.001. PMID 21419322. 
  16. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1. Archived frae the oreeginal on 11 April 2017. 
  17. ChemSpider search for "Clc1ccccc1C2(NC)CCCCC2=O"
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Ketamine Injection". Drugs.com. Archived frae the oreeginal on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Green, SM; Roback, MG; Kennedy, RM; Krauss, B (2011). "Clinical Practice Guideline for Emergency Department Ketamine Dissociative Sedation: 2011 Update". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 57 (5): 449–61. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2010.11.030. PMID 21256625. 
  20. Zgaia, AO; Irimie, A; Sandesc, D; Vlad, C; Lisencu, C; Rogobete, A; Achimas-Cadariu, P (2015). "The role of ketamine in the treatment of chronic cancer pain". Clujul Medical. 88 (4): 457–61. doi:10.15386/cjmed-500. PMC 4689236Freely accessible. PMID 26733743. 
  21. Zapantis, A; Leung, S (September 2005). "Tolerance and withdrawal issues with sedation". Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 17 (3): 211–23. doi:10.1016/j.ccell.2005.04.011. PMID 16115529. 
  22. "Ketamine – CESAR". Center for Substance Abuse Research. University of Maryland. Archived frae the oreeginal on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2014.