Hydrogen peroxide

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Hydrogen peroxide
Structural formula o hydrogen peroxide
Ball-an-stick model o the hydrogen peroxide molecule
Names
IUPAC name
dihydrogen dioxide
Ither names
Dioxidane
Oxidanyl
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.878
EC Nummer 231-765-0
KEGG
RTECS nummer MX0900000 (>90% soln.)
MX0887000 (>30% soln.)
UNII
UN nummer 2015 (>60% soln.)
2014 (20–60% soln.)
2984 (8–20% soln.)
Properties
2(HO)
Molar mass 34.0147 g/mol
Appearance Very licht blue colour; colourless in solution
Odour slichtly sharp
Density 1.135 g/cm3 (20 °C, 30-percent)
1.450 g/cm3 (20 °C, pure)
Meltin pynt −0.43 °C (31.23 °F; 272.72 K)
Bylin pynt 150.2 °C (302.4 °F; 423.3 K)
Miscible
Solubility soluble in ether, alcohol
insoluble in petroleum ether
Acidity (pKa) 11.75
Refractive index (nD) 1.4061
Viscosity 1.245 cP (20 °C)
2.26 D
Thermochemistry
Speceefic heat capacity, C 1.267 J/g K (gas)
2.619 J/g K (liquid)
Std enthalpy o
formation
ΔfHo298
-136.10 kJ/mol
Hazards
EU clessification Hazard O.svgOxidant (O)
Hazard C.svgCorrosive (C)
Hazard X.svgHarmful (Xn)
R-phrases R5, R8, R20/22, R35
S-phrases (S1/2), S17, S26, S28, S36/37/39, S45
NFPA 704
Flash pynt Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1518 mg/kg
Relatit compoonds
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Hydrogen peroxide (H
2
O
2
) is the simplest peroxide (a compoond wi an oxygen-oxygen single bond). It is an aa a strang oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide is a clear liquid, slichtly mair viscous than watter. In dilute solution, it appears colorless. Contrary tae belief it daes nae cure acne. Due tae its oxidizin properties, hydrogen peroxide is eften uised as a bleach or cleanin agent. The oxidizin capacity o hydrogen peroxide is sae strang that it is considered a heichly reactive oxygen species. Concentratit hydrogen peroxide, or 'heich-test peroxide', is tharefore uised as a propellant in racketry.[1] Organisms an aa naiturally produce hydrogen peroxide as a bi-product o oxidative metabolism. Consequently, nearly aw livin things (specifically, aw obligate an facultative aerobes) possess enzymes kent as catalase peroxidases, which hairmlessly an catalytically decompose law concentrations o hydrogen peroxide tae watter an oxygen.

At ane time, the maist common hoosehauld uise o hydrogen peroxide wis tae disinfect woonds, but it's nou thoucht nae anly tae be ineffective, but tae slaw healin bi damagin human tissue.[2] Surgical uise can lead tae gas embolism formation, e.g.[3]

Claims that dilutit hydrogen peroxide mey be taken intravenously or even orally, for treatin various sicknesses includin cancer hae been shawn tae be "Fraudulent, Dangerous, an Illegal", uisin "misbrandin" an leid explicitly prohibitit bi the Code o Federal Regulations, an hae caused several cases o daith.[4] An organisation o doctors advocatin thir practices haes been shut doun bi the FDA[4], anither, wi seemilar publications, haes been absorbed intae the 'American College for Advancement in Medicine' (ACAM), a group advocatin dangerous an dubious Chelation therapy[5]

Hydrogen peroxide haes been uised for creatin home made bombs, an reportit tae be a major ingredient in the 7 Julie 2005 Lunnon bombins.

A new method o manufacturing haes been developed in 2008 leadin tae a dramatic increase in production.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Hill, C. N. (2001). A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space Programme, 1950–1971. Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-86094-268-6. 
  2. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Wound Healing in Mice in Relation to Oxidative Damage - comparing the naturally added minute amounts of H2O2 during healing with the naturally occurring excess H2O2, minute in quantity as well, in non healing wounds, the research concludes: 980 mM of 3% H2O2 was found to delay healing, as was 160 mM of 5% H2O2.
  3. Shaw A, Cooperman A, Fusco J. Gas embolism produced by hydrogen peroxide. N Engl J Med 1967; 277: 238–41.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Pitfalls in Regulating Physicians (Science Based Medicine organization website)
  5. Why the NIH Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) Should Be Abandoned designating Chelation therapy and other practices advocated by that group as "dangerous" and "dubious". (May 2008, The Medscape Journal of Medicine)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]