Eemock

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Eemocks
Temporal range: 140–0Ma[1]
Berriasian – Present
Fire ants 01.jpg
A group o fire eemocks.
Scienteefic clessification e
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Cless: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfaimily: Formicoidea
Faimily: Formicidae
Latreille, 1809
Teep species
Formica rufa
Linnaeus, 1761
Subfaimilies
Cladogram o
subfaimilies


Martialinae



Leptanillinae



Amblyoponinae



Paraponerinae



Agroecomyrmecinae



Ponerinae



Proceratiinae






Ecitoninae‡



Aenictinae‡




Dorylini



Aenictogitoninae‡





Cerapachyinae‡*



Leptanilloidinae‡







Dolichoderinae



Aneuretinae





Pseudomyrmecinae



Myrmeciinae







Ectatomminae



Heteroponerinae




Myrmicinae



Formicinae






A phylogeny o the extant eemock subfaimilies.[2][3]
*Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic
‡ The previous dorylomorph subfaimilies war synonymized unner Dorylinae bi Brady et al. in 2014[4]

Eemocks are eusocial insects o the faimily Formicidae an, alang wi the relatit wasps and bees, belang tae the order Hymenoptera. Eemocks evolved frae wasp-lik auncestors in the Cretaceous period, aboot 140 million years agae, an diversified efter the rise o flouerin plants. Mair nor 12,500 o an estimatit tot o 22,000 speshies hae been clessifee'd.[5][6] They are easily identified by their elbaed antennae an the distinctive node-lik structur that forms thair sclender waists.

Eemocks form colonies that range in size frae a few dozen predatory individuals leevin in smaw naitural cavities tae heichly organised colonies that mey occupy lairge territories an consist o millions o individuals. Lairger colonies consist o various castes o sterile, weengless females, maist o that are workers (ergates), as werl as sodgers (dinergates) an ither specialised groups.[7][8] Nearly aw eemock colonies an aa hae some fertile males cried "drones" (aner) an ane or mair fertile females cried "queens" (gynes).[8] The colonies are descrived as superorganisms acause the eemocks appear tae operate as a unifee'd entity, collectively wirkin thegither tae support the colony.[9][10]

Eemocks hae colonised awmaist ivery laundmass on Yird. The anly places lackin indigenous eemocks are Antarcticae an a few remote or inhospitable islands. Eemocks thrive in maist ecoseestems an mey form 15–25% o the terrestrial ainimal biomass.[11] Thair success in sae mony environments haes been attributit tae thair social organisation an thair abeelity tae modifee habitats, tap resoorces, an defend themsels. Thair lang co-evolution wi ither species haes led tae meemetic, commensal, parasitic, an mutualistic relationships.[12]

Eemock societies hae diveesion o labour, communication atween individuals, an an abeelity tae solve complex problems.[13] Thir parallels wi human societies hae lang been an inspiration an subject o study. Mony human culturs mak uise o eemocks in cuisine, medication, an reetuals. Some species are vailyie'd in thair role as biological pest control augents.[14] Thair abeelity tae exploit resoorces mey bring eemocks intae conflict wi humans, houiver, as thay can damage craps an invade biggins. Some species, sic as the reid importit fire eemock (Solenopsis invicta), are regairdit as invasive species, establishin themsels in auries whaur thay hae been introduced accidentally.[15]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Moreau CS, Bell CD, Vila R, Archibald SB, Pierce NE (2006). "Phylogeny of the ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms". Science. 312 (5770): 101–104. Bibcode:2006Sci...312..101M. doi:10.1126/science.1124891. PMID 16601190. 
  2. Ward, Philip S (2007). "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1668: 549–563. 
  3. Rabeling C, Brown JM, Verhaagh M (2008). "Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution". PNAS. 105 (39): 14913–7. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10514913R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806187105. PMC 2567467Freely accessible. PMID 18794530. 
  4. Brady, Seán G; Fisher, Brian L; Schultz, Ted R; Ward, Philip S (2014). "The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 2–14. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-93. PMC 4021219Freely accessible. PMID 24886136. 
  5. "Hymenoptera name server. Formicidae species count". Ohio State University. 
  6. Agosti D; Johnson, N F (2003). Fernández, F., ed. La nueva taxonomía de hormigas (PDF). Introducción a las hormigas de la región neotropical. Instituto Humboldt, Bogotá. pp. 45–48. Retrieved 2015-12-13. 
  7. Fisher, Brian L.; Bolton, Barry (26 Julie 2016). Ants of Africa and Madagascar: A Guide to the Genera. University of California Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780520290891. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Singh, Rajendra (2006). Elements of Entomology. Rastogi Publications. p. 284. ISBN 9788171336777. 
  9. Oster GF, Wilson EO (1978). Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-691-02361-1. 
  10. Flannery, Tim (2011). A Natural History of the Planet. Grove/Atlantic, Inc. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-8021-9560-9. 
  11. Schultz TR (2000). "In search of ant ancestors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (26): 14028–14029. Bibcode:2000PNAS...9714028S. doi:10.1073/pnas.011513798. PMC 34089Freely accessible. PMID 11106367. 
  12. Hölldobler & Wilson (1990), p. 471
  13. Dicke E, Byde A, Cliff D, Layzell P (2004). A. J. Ispeert, M. Murata, N. Wakamiya, eds. "An ant-inspired technique for storage area network design". Proceedings of Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology: First International Workshop, BioADIT 2004 LNCS 3141: 364–379. 
  14. Hölldobler & Wilson (1990), pp. 619–629
  15. "Pest Notes: Ants (Publication 7411)". University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2007. Retrieved 5 Juin 2008.