Eemock

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Eemocks
Temporal range: 140–0 Ma[1]
Berriasian – Present
Fire ants 01.jpg
A group o fire eemocks.
Scientific classification e
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Cless: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfaimily: Formicoidea
Faimily: Formicidae
Latreille, 1809
Teep species
Formica rufa
Subfaimilies
Cladogram o
subfaimilies

Martialinae

Leptanillinae

Amblyoponinae

Paraponerinae

Agroecomyrmecinae

Ponerinae

Proceratiinae

Ecitoninae‡

Aenictinae‡

Dorylini

Aenictogitoninae‡

Cerapachyinae‡*

Leptanilloidinae‡

Dolichoderinae

Aneuretinae

Pseudomyrmecinae

Myrmeciinae

Ectatomminae

Heteroponerinae

Myrmicinae

Formicinae

A phylogeny o the extant eemock subfaimilies.[2][3]
*Cerapachyinae is paraphyletic
‡ The previous dorylomorph subfaimilies war synonymized unner Dorylinae bi Brady et al. in 2014[4]

Eemocks is eusocial beasties o the faimily Formicidae and, alang wi the relatit wasps and bees, belangs the order Hymenoptera. Eemocks evolved frae wasp-like forebeirs in the Cretaceous period, aboot 140 million years syne, and diversified efter the rise o flouerin plants. Mair nor 12,500 o aboot 22,000 speshies haes been clessifee'd.[5][6] Thay are easy identified by thair elbaed antennae and the distinctive node-like structur that forms thair sclender waists.

Eemocks forms colonies that ranges in size frae a twa-three dizzen predatory individuals leevin in smaw naitural cavities tae gey and organised colonies that micht occupy lairge territories and consist o millions o individuals. Bigger colonies is makkit up o various castes o sterile, weengless females, and maist o thaim is wirkers (ergates), as weel as sodgers (dinergates) and ither specialised groups.[7][8] Forby, nearhaund aa eemock colonies haes some fertile males cryed "drones" (aner) and ane or mair fertile females cryed "queens" (gynes).[8] The colonies is descrived as superorganisms acause the eemocks appears tae operate as the ae entity, collectively wirkin thegither tae support the colony.[9][10]

Eemocks haes colonised nearhaund ilka laundmass on Yird. The anely places wantin indigenous eemocks is Antarcticae and a twa-three remote or inhospitable islands. Eemocks thrives in maist ecoseestems and micht mak up 15–25% o the terrestrial ainimal biomass.[11] Thair success in a wheen o environments haes been attributit tae thair social organisation and thair abeelity tae chynge habitats, tap resoorces, an defend thairsels. Thair lang co-evolution wi ither species haes led tae meemetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships.[12]

Eemock societies haes diveesion o labour, communication atween individuals, and can figgur oot haurd problems.[13] Thir parallels wi human societies haes lang been a inspiration and subject o study. A lot o human culturs maks uiss o eemocks in cuisine, medication, an reetuals. Some species is vailyie'd in thair role as biological pest control augents.[14] Thair abeelity tae exploit resoorces micht bring eemocks intae conflict wi humans, houiver, seein as thay can skaithe craps an invade biggins. Some species, siclike as the reid importit fire eemock (Solenopsis invicta), is regairdit as invasive species, estaiblishin thairsels in airts whaur thay hae been introduced in a mistak.[15]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Moreau CS, Bell CD, Vila R, Archibald SB, Pierce NE (2006). "Phylogeny of the ants: Diversification in the Age of Angiosperms". Science. 312 (5770): 101–104. Bibcode:2006Sci...312..101M. doi:10.1126/science.1124891. PMID 16601190.
  2. Ward, Philip S (2007). "Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1668: 549–563.
  3. Rabeling C, Brown JM, Verhaagh M (2008). "Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution". PNAS. 105 (39): 14913–7. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10514913R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806187105. PMC 2567467. PMID 18794530.
  4. Brady, Seán G; Fisher, Brian L; Schultz, Ted R; Ward, Philip S (2014). "The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 2–14. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-93. PMC 4021219. PMID 24886136.
  5. "Hymenoptera name server. Formicidae species count". Ohio State University.
  6. Agosti D; Johnson, N F (2003). Fernández, F. (ed.). La nueva taxonomía de hormigas (PDF). Introducción a las hormigas de la región neotropical. Instituto Humboldt, Bogotá. pp. 45–48. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  7. Fisher, Brian L.; Bolton, Barry (26 Julie 2016). Ants of Africa and Madagascar: A Guide to the Genera. University of California Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780520290891.
  8. a b Singh, Rajendra (2006). Elements of Entomology. Rastogi Publications. p. 284. ISBN 9788171336777.
  9. Oster GF, Wilson EO (1978). Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-691-02361-1.
  10. Flannery, Tim (2011). A Natural History of the Planet. Grove/Atlantic, Inc. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-8021-9560-9.
  11. Schultz TR (2000). "In search of ant ancestors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (26): 14028–14029. Bibcode:2000PNAS...9714028S. doi:10.1073/pnas.011513798. PMC 34089. PMID 11106367.
  12. Hölldobler & Wilson (1990), p. 471
  13. Dicke E, Byde A, Cliff D, Layzell P (2004). A. J. Ispeert, M. Murata, N. Wakamiya (eds.). "An ant-inspired technique for storage area network design". Proceedings of Biologically Inspired Approaches to Advanced Information Technology: First International Workshop, BioADIT 2004 LNCS 3141: 364–379.
  14. Hölldobler & Wilson (1990), pp. 619–629
  15. "Pest Notes: Ants (Publication 7411)". University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2007. Retrieved 5 Juin 2008.