Dug

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Domestic dug
Collage of Nine Dogs.jpg
Nine different breeds o dugs.
Domesticatit
Scienteefic clessification
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Cless: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Faimily: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Subspecies: C. l. familiaris
Trinomial name
Canis lupus familiaris[1]
Synonyms

The domestic dug (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a uisually furry, carnivorous[2][3][4] canid carnivoran mammal. The dug wis the first domesticatit ainimal[5][6] an haes been widely kept as a wirkin, huntin, an pet companion. It is estimatit thare are atween 700 million an ane billion domestic dugs, makin them the maist abundant member o order Carnivora.[7][8]

Their lang association wi humans haes led dugs tae be uniquely attuned tae human behaviour[9] an thay are able tae thrive on a stairch-rich diet that wad be inadequate for ither canid species.[10] New resairch seems tae shaw that dugs hae mutations tae equivalent genetic regions in humans whaur chynges are kent tae trigger heich sociability an somewhit reduced intelligence.[11][12] Dugs vary widely in shape, size an colours.[13] Dugs perform mony roles for fowk, sic as huntin, herdin, pullin laids, pertection, assistin polis an militar, companionship an, mair recently, aidin handicapped individuals an therapeutic roles. This influence on human society haes gien them the sobriquet "man's best friend".

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Mammal Species of the World – Browse: Canis lupus familiaris". Bucknell.edu. 2005. Retrieved 12 Mairch 2012. 
  2. Kim, K.S., Lee,S.E., Jeong, H.W. and Ha, J.H. (1998). "The complete nucleotide sequence of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial genome". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 10 (2): 210–220. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0513. 
  3. Wayne, R.K. and Ostrander, E.A. (1999). "Origin, genetic diversity, and genome structure of the domestic dog" (PDF). BioEssays. 21: 247–257. doi:10.1002/(sici)1521-1878(199903)21:3<247::aid-bies9>3.0.co;2-z. 
  4. Clauss, M., Kleffner, H. and Kienzle, E. "Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation". Zoo Biology. 29 (6): 687–704. doi:10.1002/zoo.20302. 
  5. Nikolai D. Ovodov, Susan J. Crockford, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin, Thomas F. G. Higham, Gregory W. L. Hodgins, Johannes van der Plicht. (2011). A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum. Published: 28 July, 2011DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022821. Page 1 online here OCT14
  6. Greger Larson, Elinor K. Karlsson, Angela Perri, Matthew T. Webster, Simon Y. W. Ho, Joris Peters, Peter W. Stahl, Philip J. Piper, Frode Lingaas, Merete Fredholm, Kenine E. Comstock, Jaime F. Modiano, Claude Schelling, Alexander I. Agoulnik, Peter A. Leegwater, Keith Dobney, Jean-Denis Vignes, Carles Vilàt, Leif Anderssond, and Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Edited by Joachim Burger. (2012). Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography. vol. 109 no. 23 > Greger Larson, 8878–8883, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1203005109. Page 1 online here OCT14
  7. Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W. (2013). "A review of the interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs and wildlife". Biological Conservation. 157: 341–351. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.005. 
  8. Gompper, Matthew E. (2013). "The dog–human–wildlife interface: assessing the scope of the problem". In Gompper, Matthew E. Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–54. 
  9. Berns, G. S.; Brooks, A. M.; Spivak, M. (2012). Neuhauss, Stephan C. F, ed. "Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs". PLoS ONE. 7 (5): e38027. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...738027B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038027. PMC 3350478Freely accessible. PMID 22606363. 
  10. Axelsson, E.; Ratnakumar, A.; Arendt, M. L.; Maqbool, K.; Webster, M. T.; Perloski, M.; Liberg, O.; Arnemo, J. M.; Hedhammar, Å.; Lindblad-Toh, K. (2013). "The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet". Nature. 495 (7441): 360–364. Bibcode:2013Natur.495..360A. doi:10.1038/nature11837. PMID 23354050. 
  11. Bridgett M. von Holdt, Emily Shuldiner, Ilana Janowitz Koch, Rebecca Y. Kartzinel, Andrew Hogan, Lauren Brubaker, Shelby Wanser4, Daniel Stahler, Clive D. L. Wynne, Elaine A. Ostrander, Janet S. Sinsheimer and Monique A. R. Udell (19 Julie 2017). "Structural variants in genes associated with human Williams-Beuren syndrome underlie stereotypical hypersociability in domestic dogs". Science Advances. 3 (7): e1700398. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700398. 
  12. Mira Abed (21 Julie 2017). "Scientists find key 'friendliness' genes that distinguish dogs from wolves". L.A. Times. 
  13. Why are different breeds of dogs all considered the same species? - Scientific American Archived 10 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Nikhil Swaminathan. Accessed on 28 August 2016.