Aspirin

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Aspirin
Aspirin-skeletal.svg
Aspirin-B-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a682878
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
  • US: D (Evidence o risk)
Routes o
admeenistration
Maist commonly oral, an aa rectal, lysine acetylsalicylate mey be given IV or IM
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Rapidly an completely absorbed
Protein bindin 99.6%
Metabolism Hepatic
Biological hauf-life 300–650 mg dose: 3.1–3.2 h
1 g dose: 5 h
2 g dose: 9 h
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
Synonyms 2-acetyloxybenzoic acid
acetylsalicylate
acetylsalicylic acid
O-acetylsalicylic acid
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.059
Chemical and physical data
Formula C9H8O4
Molar mass 180.157 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Density 1.40 g/cm3
Meltin pynt 136 °C (277 °F)
Bylin pynt 140 °C (284 °F) (decomposes)
Solubility in watter 3 mg/mL (20 °C)
  (verify)

Aspirin (USAN), an aa kent as acetylsalicylic acid (/əˌsɛtəlˌsælˈsɪlk/ ə-SET-əl-SAL-i-SIL-ik; abbreviatit ASA), is a salicylate drug, eften uised as an analgesic tae relieve minor aches an pains, as an antipyretic tae reduce fever, an as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin wis first isolatit bi Felix Hoffmann, a chemist wi the German company Bayer in 1897.[1][2]

Salicylic acid, the main metabolite o aspirin, is an integral pairt o human an ainimal metabolism. While in humans much o it is attributable tae diet, a substantial pairt is synthesized endogenously.[3]

Aspirin an aa haes an antiplatelet effect bi inhibitin the production o thromboxane, which unner normal circumstances binds platelet molecules thegither tae create a patch ower damaged walls o bluid vessels. Acause the platelet patch can acome too lairge an an aa block bluid flow, locally an dounstream, aspirin is an aa uised lang-term, at law doses, tae help prevent hert attacks, strokes, an bluid clot formation in fowk at heich risk o developin bluid clots.[4] It haes an aa been established that law doses o aspirin mey be gien immediately efter a hert attack tae reduce the risk o anither hert attack or o the daith o cardiac tissue.[5][6] Aspirin mey be effective at preventin certain types o cancer, parteecularly colorectal cancer.[7][7][8][9]

The main undesirable side effects o aspirin taken bi muith are gastrointestinal ulcers, painch bleedin, an tinnitus, especially in heicher doses. In childer an adolescents, aspirin is na langer indicatit tae control flu-like symptoms or the symptoms o chickenpox or ither viral illnesses, acause o the risk o Reye's syndrome.[10]

Aspirin is pairt o a group o medications cried nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but differs frae maist ither NSAIDs in the mechanism o action. Tho it, an ithers in its group cried the salicylates, hae seemilar effects (antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic) tae the ither NSAIDs an inhibit the same enzyme cyclooxygenase, aspirin (but nae the ither salicylates) daes sae in an irreversible manner an, unlik ithers, affects mair the COX-1 variant than the COX-2 variant o the enzyme.[11]

The day, aspirin is ane o the maist widely uised medications in the warld, wi an estimatit 40,000 tonnes o it bein consumed each year.[12] In kintras whaur Aspirin is a registered trademark awned bi Bayer, the generic term is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).[13]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Sneader, W (2000 Dec 23-30). "The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 321 (7276): 1591–4. PMID 11124191.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. Karsten Schrör (2009). Acetylsalicylic acid. ISBN 978-3-527-32109-4. 
  3. Paterson, JR; Baxter, G; Dreyer, JS; Halket, JM; Flynn, R; Lawrence, JR (24 December 2008). "Salicylic acid sans aspirin in animals and man: persistence in fasting and biosynthesis from benzoic acid.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 56 (24): 11648–52. PMID 19053387. 
  4. Lewis, H. Daniel; Davis, James W.; Archibald, Donald G.; Steinke, William E.; Smitherman, Thomas C.; Doherty, James E.; Schnaper, Harold W.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Linares, Esteban; Pouget, J. Maurice; Sabharwal, Subhash C.; Chesler, Elliot; DeMots, Henry (18 August 1983). "Protective Effects of Aspirin against Acute Myocardial Infarction and Death in Men with Unstable Angina. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study". New England Journal of Medicine. 309 (7): 396–403. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 6135989. doi:10.1056/NEJM198308183090703. 
  5. Julian, D G; Chamberlain, D A; Pocock, S J (7 December 1996). "A comparison of aspirin and anticoagulation following thrombolysis for myocardial infarction (the AFTER study): a multicentre unblinded randomised clinical trial". BMJ. 313 (7070): 1429–1431. PMC 2353012. PMID 8973228. doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7070.1429. 
  6. Krumholz, H. M.; Radford, M. J.; Ellerbeck, E. F.; Hennen, J.; Meehan, T. P.; Petrillo, M.; Wang, Y.; Kresowik, T. F.; Jencks, S. F. (15 November 1995). "Aspirin in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries : Patterns of Use and Outcomes". Circulation. 92 (10): 2841–2847. PMID 7586250. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.92.10.2841. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Algra, Annemijn M; Rothwell, Peter M (2012). "Effects of regular aspirin on long-term cancer incidence and metastasis: A systematic comparison of evidence from observational studies versus randomised trials". The Lancet Oncology. 13 (5): 518–27. PMID 22440112. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70112-2. 
  8. Rothwell, Peter M; Price, Jacqueline F; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Zanchetti, Alberto; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Tognoni, Gianni; Lee, Robert; Belch, Jill FF; Wilson, Michelle (2012). "Short-term effects of daily aspirin on cancer incidence, mortality, and non-vascular death: Analysis of the time course of risks and benefits in 51 randomised controlled trials". The Lancet. 379 (9826): 1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61720-0. 
  9. Rothwell, Peter M; Wilson, Michelle; Price, Jacqueline F; Belch, Jill FF; Meade, Tom W; Mehta, Ziyah (2012). "Effect of daily aspirin on risk of cancer metastasis: A study of incident cancers during randomised controlled trials". The Lancet. 379 (9826): 1591. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60209-8. 
  10. Macdonald S (2002). "Aspirin use to be banned in under 16-year olds". BMJ. 325 (7371): 988. PMC 1169585. PMID 12411346. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7371.988/c. 
  11. Burke, Anne; Smyth, Emer; FitzGerald, Garret A. (2006). "26: Analgesic Antipyretic and Antiinflammatory Agents". Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics (11 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 671–716. ISBN 978-0-07-142280-2. 
  12. Warner, T. D.; Warner TD; Mitchell JA (2002). "Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99 (21): 13371–3. PMC 129677. PMID 12374850. doi:10.1073/pnas.222543099. 
  13. "The use of aspirin". Wordconstructions.com. Retrieved 11 Mey 2011. 

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