Aspirin

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Aspirin
Aspirin-skeletal.svg
Aspirin-B-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.commonograph
MedlinePlusa682878
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
  • US: D (Evidence o risk)
Routes o
admeenistration
Maist commonly oral, an aa rectal, lysine acetylsalicylate mey be given IV or IM
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityRapidly an completely absorbed
Protein bindin99.6%
MetabolismHepatic
Biological hauf-life300–650 mg dose: 3.1–3.2 h
1 g dose: 5 h
2 g dose: 9 h
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
Synonyms2-acetyloxybenzoic acid
acetylsalicylate
acetylsalicylic acid
O-acetylsalicylic acid
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.000.059
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC9H8O4
Molar mass180.157 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Density1.40 g/cm3
Meltin pynt136 °C (277 °F)
Bylin pynt140 °C (284 °F) (decomposes)
Solubility in watter3 mg/mL (20 °C)
  (verify)

Aspirin (USAN), an aa kent as acetylsalicylic acid (/əˌsɛtəlˌsælˈsɪlk/ ə-SET-əl-SAL-i-SIL-ik; abbreviatit ASA), is a salicylate drug, eften uised as an analgesic tae relieve minor aches an pains, as an antipyretic tae reduce fever, an as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin wis first isolatit bi Felix Hoffmann, a chemist wi the German company Bayer in 1897.[1][2]

Salicylic acid, the main metabolite o aspirin, is an integral pairt o human an ainimal metabolism. While in humans much o it is attributable tae diet, a substantial pairt is synthesized endogenously.[3]

Aspirin an aa haes an antiplatelet effect bi inhibitin the production o thromboxane, which unner normal circumstances binds platelet molecules thegither tae create a patch ower damaged walls o bluid vessels. Acause the platelet patch can acome too lairge an an aa block bluid flow, locally an dounstream, aspirin is an aa uised lang-term, at law doses, tae help prevent hert attacks, strokes, an bluid clot formation in fowk at heich risk o developin bluid clots.[4] It haes an aa been established that law doses o aspirin mey be gien immediately efter a hert attack tae reduce the risk o anither hert attack or o the daith o cardiac tissue.[5][6] Aspirin mey be effective at preventin certain types o cancer, parteecularly colorectal cancer.[7][7][8][9]

The main undesirable side effects o aspirin taken bi muith are gastrointestinal ulcers, painch bleedin, an tinnitus, especially in heicher doses. In childer an adolescents, aspirin is na langer indicatit tae control flu-like symptoms or the symptoms o chickenpox or ither viral illnesses, acause o the risk o Reye's syndrome.[10]

Aspirin is pairt o a group o medications cried nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but differs frae maist ither NSAIDs in the mechanism o action. Tho it, an ithers in its group cried the salicylates, hae seemilar effects (antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic) tae the ither NSAIDs an inhibit the same enzyme cyclooxygenase, aspirin (but nae the ither salicylates) daes sae in an irreversible manner an, unlik ithers, affects mair the COX-1 variant than the COX-2 variant o the enzyme.[11]

The day, aspirin is ane o the maist widely uised medications in the warld, wi an estimatit 40,000 tonnes o it bein consumed each year.[12] In kintras whaur Aspirin is a registered trademark awned bi Bayer, the generic term is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).[13]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Sneader, W (2000 Dec 23-30). "The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 321 (7276): 1591–4. PMID 11124191.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. Karsten Schrör (2009). Acetylsalicylic acid. ISBN 978-3-527-32109-4. 
  3. Paterson, JR; Baxter, G; Dreyer, JS; Halket, JM; Flynn, R; Lawrence, JR (24 December 2008). "Salicylic acid sans aspirin in animals and man: persistence in fasting and biosynthesis from benzoic acid". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 56 (24): 11648–52. PMID 19053387. 
  4. Lewis, H. Daniel; Davis, James W.; Archibald, Donald G.; Steinke, William E.; Smitherman, Thomas C.; Doherty, James E.; Schnaper, Harold W.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Linares, Esteban; Pouget, J. Maurice; Sabharwal, Subhash C.; Chesler, Elliot; DeMots, Henry (18 August 1983). "Protective Effects of Aspirin against Acute Myocardial Infarction and Death in Men with Unstable Angina. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study". New England Journal of Medicine. 309 (7): 396–403. doi:10.1056/NEJM198308183090703. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 6135989. 
  5. Julian, D G; Chamberlain, D A; Pocock, S J (7 December 1996). "A comparison of aspirin and anticoagulation following thrombolysis for myocardial infarction (the AFTER study): a multicentre unblinded randomised clinical trial". BMJ. 313 (7070): 1429–1431. doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7070.1429. PMC 2353012Freely accessible. PMID 8973228. 
  6. Krumholz, H. M.; Radford, M. J.; Ellerbeck, E. F.; Hennen, J.; Meehan, T. P.; Petrillo, M.; Wang, Y.; Kresowik, T. F.; Jencks, S. F. (15 November 1995). "Aspirin in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries : Patterns of Use and Outcomes". Circulation. 92 (10): 2841–2847. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.92.10.2841. PMID 7586250. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Algra, Annemijn M; Rothwell, Peter M (2012). "Effects of regular aspirin on long-term cancer incidence and metastasis: A systematic comparison of evidence from observational studies versus randomised trials". The Lancet Oncology. 13 (5): 518–27. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70112-2. PMID 22440112. 
  8. Rothwell, Peter M; Price, Jacqueline F; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Zanchetti, Alberto; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Tognoni, Gianni; Lee, Robert; Belch, Jill FF; Wilson, Michelle (2012). "Short-term effects of daily aspirin on cancer incidence, mortality, and non-vascular death: Analysis of the time course of risks and benefits in 51 randomised controlled trials". The Lancet. 379 (9826): 1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61720-0. 
  9. Rothwell, Peter M; Wilson, Michelle; Price, Jacqueline F; Belch, Jill FF; Meade, Tom W; Mehta, Ziyah (2012). "Effect of daily aspirin on risk of cancer metastasis: A study of incident cancers during randomised controlled trials". The Lancet. 379 (9826): 1591. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60209-8. 
  10. Macdonald S (2002). "Aspirin use to be banned in under 16-year olds". BMJ. 325 (7371): 988. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7371.988/c. PMC 1169585Freely accessible. PMID 12411346. 
  11. Burke, Anne; Smyth, Emer; FitzGerald, Garret A. (2006). "26: Analgesic Antipyretic and Antiinflammatory Agents". Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics (11 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 671–716. ISBN 978-0-07-142280-2. 
  12. Warner, T. D.; Warner TD; Mitchell JA (2002). "Cyclooxygenase-3 (COX-3): filling in the gaps toward a COX continuum?". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99 (21): 13371–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.222543099. PMC 129677Freely accessible. PMID 12374850. 
  13. "The use of aspirin". Wordconstructions.com. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 

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