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Tyre wis a major port in Phoenician times. It grew walthy frae its far-reachin colonies an industries o purple-dyed textiles. This attractit the attention o conquerors amang them the Babylonian Keeng Nebuchadnezzar an Alexander the Great.
Five millennie o history
Foondit at the stairt o the third millennium BC, Tyre oreeginally consistit of a mainland settlement an a modest island ceety that lay a short distance aff shore. But it wis no till the first millennium BC that the ceety experienced its gowden age. In the 10t century BC Hiram, Keeng o Tyre, joined twa islets bi landfill. Later he extendit the ceety further bi reclaimin a considerable area frae the sea. Phoenician expansion began aboot 815 BC when traders frae Tyre foondit Carthage in North Africae. Eventually its colonies spread aroond the Mediterranean an Atlantic, bringin tae the ceety a flourishin maritime trade. But prosperity an pouer mak their awn enemies. Early in the saxt century BC Nebuchadnezzar, Keeng o Babylon, laid siege tae the wawed ceety for thirteen years. Tyre stood firm, but it wis probable that at this time the residents o the mainland ceety abandoned it for the safety o the island.
Alexander the Great In 332 BC set oot tae conquer this strategic coastal ceety durin the war atween the Greeks an the Persians, Unable tae storm the ceety he blockaded Tyre for seiven months, Tyre held on but the conqueror uised the debris o the abandoned mainland ceety tae build a causeway an ance athin reach o the ceety's waws, Alexander uised his siege ingines tae batter an feenally breach the fortifications.
So enraged at the Tyrians' defense an the amoont o men lost in the battle, Alexander destroyed hauf o the ceety. The town's 30,000 residents were massacred or sold into slavery. Tyre and the whole of ancient Syria fell under Roman rule in 64 BC. Nonetheless, for some time Tyre continued to mint its own silver coins.
The Romans built great important monuments in the ceety, includin an aqueduct, a triumphal airch an the lairgest hippodrome in antiquity. Christianity figures in the history o Tyre, the name Tyre is mentioned in the new testament, Durin the Byzantine era the Airchbishop o Tyre wis the primate o aw the bishops o Phoenicie. At that time the ceety witnessed a seicont gowden age as it can be seen frae the remains o its buildings and the inscriptions in the necropolis.
Tyre surrendered tae the Islamic airmies in 634, the ceety affered nae resistance an continued tae prosper unner its new rulers, exportin o sugar as well as objects made o pearl an glass makin wis a guid source o income for the ceety. Wi the decline o the Abbasid caliphate, Tyr acquired some unthirldom unner the dynasty o Banu Aqil, vassals o the Fatimid Caliphate. This wis a time when Tyre wis adorned wi funtains an its bazaar wur full o different kynds o merchandise includin carpets an jewelry o gowd an siller.
Thanks tae Tyre's strang fortifications it wis able tae resist tae onslaught o the Crusaders til 1124. Efter aboot 180 years o Crusader rule, the Mamluks reteuk the ceety in 1291, til it wis passed on tae the Ottomans at the stairt o the 16t century.
Wi the end o Warld War I Tyre wis integratit intae the new naition o Lebanon.