Papaveraceae //, informally kent as the poppy faimily, are an economically important faimily o 30 genera an approximately 600 species of flouerin plants in the order Ranunculales. The faimily is cosmopolitan, occurrin in temperate an subtropical climates, but almaist unkent in the tropics. Maist are yerbaceous plants, but a few are shrubs an smaa trees.
Table o contents
Description[eedit | eedit soorce]
The plants mey be annual, biennial, or perennial. Uisually yerbaceous, a few species fairm shrubs or evergreen trees. Thay are lactiferous, producin latex, which mey be milky or wattery, coloured or plain. Aw pairts contain a well-developed duct seestem (these ducts are cried "laticifers"), producin a milky latex, a wattery white, yellae or reid juice.
The simple leaves are alternate or sometimes whorled. Thay hae petioles an are nae enclosed bi a sheath. The leaves are usually lobed or pinnatifid (i.e. consisting o several nae entirely separate leaflets), or much-divided. There are no stipules.
The plants are hermaphroditic an are pollinatit maistly bi insects (even as flouer nectaries are lackin; entomophilous), a few bi the wind (anemophilous). There is a distinct calyx an corolla, except in Macleaya where the corolla is lackin. The flouers are medium-sized or lairge an thay leuk spectacular. The terminal flouers solitar in maist species. In ithers the terminal inflorescence is cymose or racemose. The flouers are odourless an regular.
Thare are mony stamens, maistly 16 tae 60, arranged in twa separate whorls, the ooter ane wi stamens alternate wi the petals, the inner ane opposite. The gynoecium consists o a compound pistil wi 2 tae 100 carpels. The ovary is superior an 1-locular. The ovary is withoot a footstalk (sessile) or on a short stem (stipitate).
The non-fleshy fruit is uisually a capsule, breakin open at maturity tae release the seeds through pores (poricidal), or through the partitions atween the cells (septicidal), or bi means o valves (valvular). The numerous seeds are smaa. Their nutritive tissue (endosperm) is oily an farinose. The fruit o Platystemon is a schizocarp.
Almaist aw o these plants contain alkaloids. Mony are poisonous. The Mexican Prickly Poppy is poisonous if taken internally an mey cause edema an glaucoma. Even if an animal, such as a goat, should persist in grazin on this plant, nae only will the animal suffer but so will those who drink its milk, acause the poisons are passed alang in the milk.
Taxonomy[eedit | eedit soorce]
The APG II seestem (2003; unchynged frae the APG seestem o 1998) places the faimily in the order Ranunculales, in the clade eudicots. However, APG daes provide for the option tae segregate twa faimilies, as optional segregate. Thus, there are twa possible circumscriptions:
- Papaveraceae sensu lato, includin the plants that would itherwise fairm the faimilies Fumariaceae an Pteridophyllaceae. (see subfaimilies)
- Papaveraceae sensu stricto, excludin these plants.
The faimily sensu stricto confairms tae the faimily as recognised bi the Cronquist seestem, o 1981 (Cronquist recognised Fumariaceae as separate). This comprises aboot 26 genera an aboot 250 species. The description given above applies tae the faimily in this narrow sense.
- Genera in Papaveraceae sensu stricto
The single genus transferred when Pteridophyllaceae is includit in Papaveraceae is :
The 20 genera transferred when Fumariaceae is includit in Papaveraceae are :
Subfaimilies[eedit | eedit soorce]
For discussions o subfaimilies, see Carolan et al. (2006) an Blattner an Kadereit (1999): Eschscholzioideae, Papaveroideae (includin Platystemonoideae), an Chelidonioideae.
The twa taxa considered subfaimilies that hae also been considered as separate faimilies are the Fumariaceae (Bercht. & J. Presl, 1820) an the Pteridophyllaceae (Murb., 1912) Nakai ex Reveal & Hoogland, 1991.
Cultivation[eedit | eedit soorce]
The faimily is well loved for the strikin flouers, wi mony species grawn as ornamental plants, includin Californie poppy (Eschscholtzia californica, the Californie state flouer), the stunnin blue Himalayan poppies (Meconopsis), several species o Papaver, an the wildflouer bloodruit. The faimily also contains the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which is the soorce of opium and opiates, as well as poppy seeds uised in cuikin an bakin, an poppyseed ile.
Seembolism[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Main airticle: Poppy
The opium poppy an corn poppy are seembols, respectively, o sleep an daith. In Great Breetain, Canadae, the Unitit States, an Australie the corn poppy is worn in remembrance o Warld War I.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Papaveraceae.|
- Papaveraceae in Topwalks
- Papaveraceae [sensu stricto] in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants.
- Papaveraceae [sensu lato] in the Flora of North America
- NCBI Taxonomy Browser [sensu stricto]
- links at CSDL
- Family Papaveraceae Flowers in Israel
- *JAMES C. CAROLAN, INGRID L. I. HOOK, MARK W. CHASE, JOACHIM W. KADEREIT and TREVOR R. HODKINSON. Phylogenetics of Papaver and Related Genera Based on DNA Sequences from ITS Nuclear Ribosomal DNA and Plastid trnL Intron and trnL–F Intergenic Spacers. Annals of Botany 2006 98(1):141-155
- Frank R. Blattner and Joachim W. Kadereit. Morphological evolution and ecological diversification of the forest-dwelling poppies (Papaveraceae: Chelidonioideae) as deduced from a molecular phylogeny of the ITS region. Plant Systematics and Evolution Volume 219, Numbers 3-4 / September, 1999 181-197