Modena

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Modena
Comune
Comune di Modena
Top left:Modena Cathedral an Ghirladinn Touer, Top richt:Modena Ceety Haw, Bottom left:Stoa o Portici del Collegio in Emilia Street, Bottom richt:View o Modena Ducal Palace an San Domenico Cathedral frae Dante Square
Modena is located in Italy
Modena
Modena
Location o Modena in Italy
Coordinates: 44°39′N 10°56′E / 44.650°N 10.933°E / 44.650; 10.933
Kintra Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Modena (MO)
Frazioni Albareto, Baggiovara, Ca' Fusara, Cognento, Cittanova, Collegara, Ganaceto, Lesignana, Marzaglia, Navicello, Portile, San Damaso, San Donnino, Tre Olmi, Villanova
Government
 • Mayor Giorgio Pighi (Democratic Pairty)
Area
 • Total 182.7 km2 (70.5 sq mi)
Elevation 34 m (112 ft)
Population (21 December 2009)
 • Total 183,069
 • Density 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Demonym Modenesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 41100
Diallin code 059
Patron saunt San Geminiano
Saunt day January 31
Website Offeecial wabsteid

Modena (Italian: [ˈmɔːdena] ( listen); Etruscan: Mutna; Laitin: Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a ceety an comune (municipality) on the sooth side o the Pianura Padana, in the Province o Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region o Italy.

A auncient toun, it is the seat o an airchbishop, but is nou best ken as "the caipital o engines", syne the factories o the famous Italian sports caur makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini, Pagani an Maserati are, or wur, locatit here an aw, except Lamborghini, hae heidquarters in the ceety or nearbi. Lamborghini is heidquartered no far awa in Sant'Agata Bolognese, in the adjacent Province o Bologna. Ane o Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, wis namit efter the ceety itsel. An aw, ane o the colors for Ferraris is Modena yellae.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Modena leees on the Pianura Padana, an is boondit bi the twa rivers Secchia an Panaro, both affluents o the Po River. Their presence is seembolisit bi the Twa Rivers Foontain in the ceety's centre, bi Giuseppe Graziosi. The ceety is connectit tae the Panaro bi the Naviglio channel.

The Apennines ranges begin some 10 kilometres (6 miles) frae the ceety, tae the sooth.

The commune is dividit intae fower circoscrizioni. These are:

  • Centro storico (Historical Center, San Cataldo)
  • Crocetta (San Lazzaro-East Modena, Crocetta)
  • Buon Pastore (Buon Pastore, Sant'Agnese, San Damaso)
  • San Faustino (S.Faustino-Saliceta San Giuliano, Madonnina-Quattro Ville)

Modena haes a temperate climate. It experiences hot, humid simmers wi little rainfaw an cold, damp winters.

Municipal admeenistration[eedit | eedit soorce]

Modena Cathedral (left) an Ceety Haw (right)

Ceety govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frae 1945 tae 1992, Modena haed a uninterruptit consecutive series o Communist mayors. Frae the 1990s, the ceety haes been govrened bi center-left coalitions. At the Apryle 2006 elections, the ceety o Modena gae aboot 50% o its votes to the Democratic Party.

The legislative bouk o the municipality (comune) is the Ceety Cooncil (Consiglio Comunale) which is componit bi 35 members electit ivery five years. Modena's executive bouk is the Ceety Committee (Giunta Comunale) componit bi 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor an the mayor. The current mayor o Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member o the Democratic Pairty o Italy.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auncient times[eedit | eedit soorce]

The territory aroond Modena (Laitin: Mutina, Etruscan: Mutna) wis inhabitit bi the Villanovans in the Airn Age, an later bi Ligurie tribes, Etruscans, an the Gaulish Boii (the dounset itsel bein Etruscan). Awtho the exact date o its foondation is unkent, it is kent that it wis awready in existence in the 3rd hunderyear BC, for in 218 BC, durin Hannibal's invasion o Italy, the Boii revoltit and laid siege tae the ceety. Livy describit it as a fortifee'd citadel whaur Roman magistrates teuk shelter. The ootcome o the siege is no kent, but the ceety wis maist likely abandoned efter Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refoondit as a Roman colony in 183 BC, tae be uised as a militar base bi Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causin the Liguries tae sack it in 177 BC. Nanetheless, it wis rebuilt, an quickly became the maist important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, baith acause o its strategic importance an acause it wis on a important crossroads atween Via Aemilia an the road goin tae Verona.

A view o Piazza Grande

In the 1st hunderyear BC Mutina wis besiegit twice. The first siege wis bi Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina wis defendit bi Marcus Junius Brutus (a populist leader, no tae be ramfeeselt wi his son, Caesar's best kent assassin). The ceety eventually surrendered oot o hunger, an Brutus fled, anerly tae be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the ceevil war follaein Caesar's assassination, the ceety wis besiegit ance again, this time bi Mark Antony, in 44 BC, an defendit bi Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relievit the ceety wi the help o the Senate.

Cicero cried it Mutina splendidissima ("maist beautiful Mutina") in his Philippics (44 BC). Till the 3rd hunderyear AD, it kept its poseetion as the maist important ceety in the newly shapit Aemilia province, but the faw o the Empire brocht Mutina doun wi it, as it wis uised as a militar base baith against the barbarians an in the ceevil wars. It is said that Mutina wis niver sackit bi Attila, for a dense fog hid it (a miracle said tae be provided by Saint Geminianus, bishop an patron o Modena), but it wis eventually buriet bi a great flood in the 7t hunderyear an abandoned.

Middle Ages[eedit | eedit soorce]

Its exiles foondit a new city a few miles tae the northwast, still representit bi the veelage o Cittanova (leeterally "new ceety"). Aboot the end o the 9t hunderyear, Modena wis restored and refortifee'd bi its bishop, Ludovicus. At aboot this time the Song of the Watchmen of Modena wis componit. Later the ceety wis pairt o the possessions o the Coontess Matilda o Tuscany, becomin a free comune stairtin frae the 12t hunderyear. In the wars atween Emperor Frederick II an Pape Gregory IX Modena sidit wi the emperor.

The Este faimily wur identifee'd as lairds o Modena from 1288 (Obizzo d'Este). Efter the daith o Obizzo's successor (Azzo VIII, in 1308) the comune reassertit itsel, but bi 1336 the Este faimily wis permanently in pouer. Unner Borso d'Este Modena wis made a duchy.

Modren age[eedit | eedit soorce]

Enlairgit an fortifee'd bi Ercole II, it wis made the primar ducal residence when Ferrara, the main Este seat, fell tae the Pape in 1598. Francesco I d'Este, Duke o Modena (1629–1658) built the citadel an began the palace, which wis lairgely embellished bi Francesco II. In the 18t hunderyear, Rinaldo d'Este wis twice driven frae his ceety bi French invasions, an Francesco III built mony o Modena's public buildings, but the Este picturs wur sauld an mony o thaim woond up in Dresden. Ercole III dee'd in exile at Treviso, haein refused Napoleonic affers o compensation when Modena wis made pairt o the Napoleonic Cispadane Republic. His anerly dochter, Maria Beatrice d'Este, marriet Ferdinand I, Archduke o Austrick-Este, son o Empress Maria Theresa o Austrick; an in 1814 their eldest son, Francis IV, receivit back the estates o the Este. Quickly, in 1816, he dismantled the fortifications that micht well hae been uised against him an began Modena's years unner Austrian rule which, despite bein juist, constitutional an fair, nivertheless haed tae face anither foreign-inspired rebellion in 1830, this time happily unsuccessful.

His son Francis V wis a juist ruler an aw an famously tendit the victims o war an cholera wi his awn hand. Housomeivver, he haed tae face yet more foreign-inspired revolutions an aw an was temporarily expelled frae Modena in the European Revolutions o 1848. He wis restored, amidst wide popular acclaim, bi Austrian troops. Ten years later, on 20 August 1859, the revolutionars again invadit (this time the Piemontese), annexin Modena intae the revolutionar Savoyard naition o Italy as a territorial pairt o the Kinrick o Italy.

Interior o the Cathedral
Piazza Grande, wi the Cathedral an the Communal Palace.
The Baroque Ducal Palace o Modena (nou a militar academy)

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Cathedral an the Ghirlandina[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Cathedral o Modena an the annexed campanile are a UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid. Begun unner the direction o the Coontess Matilda o Tuscany wi its first stane laid 6 Juin 1099 an its crypt ready for the ceety's patron, Saunt Geminianus, an consecratit anerly sax years later, the Duomo o Modena wis feenished in 1184. The biggin o a great cathedral in this flood-prone ravagit umwhile center o Arianism wis a act o urban renewal in itsel, an a expression o the flood o piety that motivatit the contemporar First Crusade. Unuisually, the maister builder's name, Lanfranco, wis celebratit in his awn day: the ceety's chronicler expressed the popular confidence in the maister-mason frae Como, Lanfranco: bi God's mercy the man wis foond (inventus est vir). The sculptor Wiligelmus who directit the mason's yard wis praised in the plaque that commemoratit the foondin. The program o the sculptur is no lost in a welter o detail: the wild dangerous universe o the exterior is mediatit bi the Biblical figurs o the portals leadin tae the Christian warld o the interior. In Wiligelmus' sculptur at Modena, the human bouk taks on a renewed pheesicality it haed lost in the schematic symbolic figurs o previous hunderyears. At the east end, three apses reflect the diveesion o the bouk o the cathedral intae nave an wide aisles wi their bauld, solid masses. Modena's Duomo inspired campaigns o cathedral an abbey biggin in emulation throu the valley o the Po.

The Gothic campanile (1224–1319) is cried Torre della Ghirlandina frae the bronze garland surroondin the weathercock.

Ducal Palace[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Ducal Palace o Modena

The Ducal Palace, begun bi Francesco I d'Este in 1634 an feenished bi Francis V, wis the seat o the Este court frae the 17t tae 19t hunderyears. The palace occupees the steid o the former Este Castle, ance locatit in the periphery o the ceety. Awtho generally creditit tae Bartolomeo Avanzini, it haes been suggestit that advice an guidance in the design process haed been socht frae the contemporar luminaries, Cortona, Bernini, and Borromini.

The Palace currently hooses the Accademia Militare di Modena, the Militar Museum an a precious librar.

The Palace haes a Baroque façade frae which the Honour Court, whaur the militar ceremonies are held, an the Honour Staircase can be accessed. The Central Haw haes a frescoed ceiling wi the 17t-hunderyear Incoronation o Bradamante bi Marco Antonio Franceschini. The Salottino d'Oro ("Gowden Haw"), covered wi gilted removable panels, wis uised bi Duke Francis III as his main cabinet o wirk.

Toun Haw[eedit | eedit soorce]

Facin the Piazza Grande (a UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid), the Toun Haw o Modena wis put thegither in the 17t an 18t hunderyears frae several pre-existin edifices built frae 1046 as municipal offices.

It is characterisit bi a Clock Touer (Torre dell'Orologio, late 15t hunderyear), ance paired wi anither touer (Torre Civica) demolished efter a yirdquauk in 1671. In the interior, notewirthy is the Sala del Fuoco ("Fire Hall"), wi a pentit frieze bi Niccolò dell'Abbate (1546) portrayin famous characters frae Auncient Roum against a teepical Emilia backgrund. The Camerino dei Confirmati ("Chamber o the Confirmed") hooses ane o the seembols o the ceety, the Secchia Rapita, a bucket kept in memory o the victorious Battle o Zappolino (1325) against Bologna. This relic inspired the poem o the same title bi Alessandro Tassoni. Anither relic frae the Middle Ages in Modena is the Preda Ringadora, a rectangular marble stane next tae the palace porch, uised as a speakers' platform, an the statue cried La Bonissima ("The Vera Guid"): the latter, portrayin a female figur, wis erectit in the square in 1268 an later instawed ower the porch.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Modena haes a strang sportin tradeetion, linkit mainly tae motor racin as the birthplace o Enzo Ferrari, foonder o the eponymous motor racin team an caur manufacturer which is based in nearbi Maranello. The Ferrari 360 Modena wis namit efter the ceety. Indeed, Modena is kent as the Warld's 'Supercaur Caipital', bein the nearest lairge toun tae the hames o Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani an previously Bugatti an De Tomaso an aw. The ceety's fitbaa club, Modena F.C., play in Serie B, the Italian seicont diveesion. They play at the 21,151-seater Stadio Alberto Braglia, which haes hostit internaitional rugby union an aw.[1] Volleybaw plays a important role in Modena's sport history, wi Panini Modena haein wan 11 Naitional championships, 4 Champion's League saisons an a haundful o ither trophies.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Modena is twinned wi:

Consulates[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Warld Heritage Steids in Italy