Darnah, Libie

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Derna /ˈdɜrnə/ (Arabic: درنةDarnah) is a port ceety in eastren Libie. It haes a population o 80,000. It wis the seat o ane o the walthiest provinces in the Barbary States, an remains the caipital o the Derna Destrict, wi a hintle smawer aurie. The ceety is an aw hame tae mony Greek immigrants frae the island o Crete. Derna haes a unique environment amang Libie ceeties, as it lees atween green muntains, the Mediterranean Sea, an the desert. The ceety is an aw hame tae fowk o mixed oreegins.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Darnis an Darne wur the Greek forms o the name for the ceety,[1] while sometimes the form Dardanis is foond, it wis due tae an error.[2] Unner Roum it wis referred tae as Darnis an Derna. Unner Islam, it wis kent as Derneh (Derne, Dernah) or Terneh (Ternah).

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auld Mercat o Derna

In the Hellenistic period the auncient ceety wis pairt o the Libie Pentapolis.[1][3] Under Rome, it became a civil an later the releegious metropolis o Libya Secunda, or Libya Inferior, that is the Marmarica region.[4]

It wis a metropolitan titular airchbishopric in the umwhile Roman province o Libie, in the diocese o Egyp. Housomeivver, anerlie three, perhaps fower, bishops are kent, frae the fowert or saxt century tae aboot 600.[2]

The ceety wis resettled bi the Islamic refugees frae Spain (Al-Andalus) in 1493 on the steid o the auncient settlement.

Unner Ottoman rule, Derna wis initially unner the govrenor at Tripoli, but shortly efter 1711 it fell unner the Karamanli sultanate, till in 1835 when it became a dependency o the autonomous sanjak o Benghazi, essentially Cyrenaica, which wis govrened directly frae Constantinople.[5] which in turn, in 1875, became the vilayet o Cyrenaica.[6] In the 1850s it haed an estimatit 4,500 inhabitants,[7] who lived bi agricultur, fishin an the coastal trade.[2]

The auldest mosque in Derna is Al-masjeed al-ateeq, or the "Auld Mosque", restored bi wali Mahmoud Karamanli in 1772, vaultit wi 42 sma cupolas. This kynd o vault wis in uise due tae lack o some materials, like timber or stane in the region o Cyrenaica. There is anither mosque, namit Masjeed az-zawiyah, built in 1846, maire strictly curvit in side o a hill.

The French admiral Gantheaume landit at Derna in Juin 1800 in an attempt tae reinforce Napoleon in Egyp bi bringin truips owerland, but wis rebuffed bi the local garrison.[8][9]

Derna wis the location o the 1805 Battle o Derne, in which forces unner U.S. General William Eaton—who haed maircht 800 kilometres (500 mi) athort the Libie Desert frae Alexandria—captured the ceety as pairt o the First Barbary War.

On 30 Januar 1941, Australie troops captured Derna frae the Italian airmy in the North African Campaign.

In 2007, American troops in Iraq uncovered a leet o foreign fechters for the Iraq War. O the 112 Libies on the leet, 52 haed come frae Derna. Derna haes the reputation o being the maist pious Muslim ceety in Libie.[10]

Follaein mass protests on 18 Februar, the ceety came unner the control o the Naitional Transitional Cooncil, breakin frae the govrenment o Muammar Gaddafi.[11][12] The ceety wis niver retaken afore Gaddafi's ooster frae Tripoli an the establishment o a new govrenment.

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Derna is locatit at the eastren end o the Jebel Akhdar, the hivily forestit, fertile upland aurie o eastren Libie, which is the wettest region o Libie. It is an aw a ceety wi pleasant wather. In winter, the ceety's average temperatur ranges atween 4 an 14 Celsius, an micht drop tae belaw zero. Rain, hail an occasional snaw is present in the ceety's winter. Derna is an aw famous for its green muntainous auries that hae a view o the Mediterranean Sea. The ceety is maistly famous in natur for its Wadi an muntainous auries.

Description[eedit | eedit soorce]

Derna is a ceety that heas three main squares, the maist popular square is the Maydan Assahabah this square is recently uised for mass demonstrations against Libie leader Muammar Gaddafi. The ceety is an aw a tourist hub, due tae its wonderful auld ceety (the medina), the auld medina is home to Ottoman Architecture. The Medina consists o a mosque, kirk, synagogue, mony sma streets, an auld souqs. Derna is an aw a ceety that consists o different streets and various neighborhoods, such as Dountoun (Wast Il Blaad), Al Ikweih, Al Mighar, Assahel Ashargi, Al Wadi, Bab Tobruq, Al Fitayih, an Bab Shaiha.

Fitbaa[eedit | eedit soorce]

Derna is hame tae fower fitbaa clubs which are Darnis, Al Afriqi, Al Shallal, an Nusoor Martouba. Darnis is the maist successful an popular club in the ceety. The biggest rivals in the ceety are Darnis an Al Afriqi which hae a lang an great history o classic rivalry.

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ptolemy (IV, 4, 2; 5; 6)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Darnis". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  3. Ammianus Marcellinus, (XXII, 16, 4)
  4. Hierocles, Synecdemus 734,3; Lequien, Oriens Christianus II, 631; Heinrich Gelzer, "Georgii Cyprii descripto orbis Romani", 142
  5. Vailhé, S. (1913) "Tripoli, Prefecture Apostolic of" Catholic Encyclopedia volume 15, page 59
  6. Hayes, Carlton Joseph Huntley (1919) A political and social history of modern Europe, Volume 1 Macmillan, New York, page 514, OCLC 19118611
  7. Hamilton, James (1856) Wanderings in North Africa J. Murray, London, page 117, OCLC 5659586
  8. Mackesy, Piers (1995) British victory in Egypt, 1801: the end of Napoleon's conquest Routledge, London, page 162, ISBN 0-415-04064-7
  9. Strathern, Paul (2008) Napoleon in Egypt Bantam Books, New York, page 418, ISBN 978-0-553-80678-6
  10. Destination: Martyrdom Newsweek, April 28, 2008.
  11. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/20112235434767487.html
  12. http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/02/23/138957.html

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Media relatit tae Derna at Wikimedie Commons

Template:Darnah Coordinates: 32°46′N 22°38′E / 32.767°N 22.633°E / 32.767; 22.633