Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar Gaddafi (Arabic: مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي Muʿammar al-Qaḏḏāfī audio?;[variations] (June 1942[nb 1]– 20 October 2011), commonly kent as Muammar Gaddafi / / or Colonel Gaddafi, wis the offeeial ruler o the Libie Arab Republic frae 1969 tae 1977 an then the "Brither Leader" o the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya frae 1977 tae 2011.
Transliteration o his Arabic name
Acause o the lack o staundartization o transliteratin written an regionally pronooncit Arabic, Gaddafi's name haes been romanized in mony different ways. Even though the Arabic spellin o a wird does no chynge, the pronunciation mey vary in different varieties o Arabic, which mey suggest a different romanization. In Literary Arabic, the name مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي can be pronooncit /muˈʕammaru lqaðˈðaːfiː/. Geminated consonants can be simplified. In Libyan Arabic, /q/ (ق) is replacit wi [ɡ]; an /ð/ (ذ), as "th" in "this", is replacit wi [d]. Vouel [u] aften alternates wi [o] in pronunciation in other regions. Thus, /muˈʕammar alqaðˈðaːfiː/ is normally pronooncit in Libie Arabic [muˈʕæmmɑrˤ əlɡædˈdæːfi]. The definite airticle al- (ال) is aften omittit.
The Arabic verb قَذَفَ qaðafa haes various meanins centerin on "he threw".
- Some sources, such as a BBC Obituary Muammar Gaddafi, give the date as 7 June. Other sources say June 1942; others say "Spring of 1942" (Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East, 2004) or "September 1942" (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 1998)
- "The Prosecutor v. Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi". ICC-01/11-01/11. International Criminal Court. 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2011.