Libie ceevil war

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2011 Libie ceevil war
Pairt o the Arab Ware
Libyancivilwar2.png
Clockwise frae top-left: The Naitional Transitional Cooncil banner is flown bi anti-Gaddafi fechters in Brega on 10 Mairch 2011; protesters in Al Bayda; protesters an defectors clash wi Libie sodgers in Al Bayda on 17 Februar 2011; a French rescue helicopter lands on USS Mount Whitney, at the beginnin o the military intervention; remains o twa Palmaria heavy howitzers o the Libie Airmy, destroyed bi French warplanes near Benghazi; USS Barry launches ane o its Tomahawk missiles durin Operation Unified Protector.
Date 15 Februar – 23 October 2011 (8 months, 8 days)
Location Libie
Result Overthrow o Gaddafi govrenment
Belligerents
Libie National Transitional Council[5]

Banner o Qatar Qatar[9][10][11][12]


UN member states enforcin UNSC Resolution 1973:


Spillower conflict:
Banner o Tunisie Tunisie (minor border clashes)

Banner o Libie Libie Libie Arab Jamahiriya
Commanders an leaders
Banner o Libie Libie Mustafa Abdul Jalil
(Chairman of the NTC)[27]

Banner o Libie Libie Abdul Hafiz Ghoga
(Vice-Chairman of the NTC)
Banner o Libie Libie Mahmoud Jibril
(Interim Libyan Prime Minister)
Banner o Libie Libie Jalal al-Digheily
Banner o Libie Libie Omar El-Hariri[28]
Banner o Libie Libie Suleiman Mahmoud[29]
Banner o Libie Libie Abdul Fatah Younis 
(assassinatit 28 Julie in Benghazi)
Banner o Libie Libie Khalifa Belqasim Haftar
Banner o Libie Libie Mahdi al-Harati
Banner o Libie Libie Abu Oweis
Banner o Libie Libie Abdul Hassan
Banner o Libie Libie Khalid Shahmah
Banner o Qatar Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Banner o Qatar Qatar Hamad bin Ali al-Attiyah


Flag of NATO.svg Anders Fogh Rasmussen
(Secretary General)
Flag of NATO.svg James G. Stavridis
(SACEUR)
Flag of NATO.svg Charles Bouchard
(Operational Commander)[30]
Flag of NATO.svg Ralph Jodice
(Air Commander)
Flag of NATO.svg Rinaldo Veri
(Maritime Commander)
Flag of NATO.svg Carter Ham


Flag of Canada.svg Stephen Harper
(Prime Meenister o Canadae)
Flag of Canada.svg Marc Lessard
Flag of Denmark.svg Lars Løkke Rasmussen
(Prime Meenister o Denmark tae 3 Oct)
Flag of Denmark.svg Helle Thorning-Schmidt
(Prime Meenister o Denmark frae 3 Oct)
Flag of Denmark.svg Knud Bartels
Flag of France.svg Nicolas Sarkozy
(President of France)
Flag of France.svg Édouard Guillaud
Flag of Italy.svg Silvio Berlusconi
(Prime Minister of Italy)
Flag of Italy.svg Rinaldo Veri
Flag of Norway.svg Jens Stoltenberg
(Prime Minister of Norway)
Flag of Norway.svg Harald Sunde
Flag of Romania.svg Traian Băsescu
(President of Romania)
Flag of Romania.svg Ștefan Dănilă
Banner o Unitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick David Cameron
(Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick)
Banner o Unitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick Sir Stuart Peach
(Chief o Joint Operations)
Banner o Unitit States United States Barack Obama
(Preses o the Unitit States)
Banner o Unitit States Unitit States Carter Ham
Banner o Unitit States Unitit States Sam Locklear
Banner o Jordan Jordan Abdullah II
(King of Jordan)
Banner o Swaden Swaden Sverker Göranson
Banner o Unitit Arab Emirates UAE Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
(President of the United Arab Emirates)

Template:Kintra data Libie Arab Muammar Gaddafi 

Muammar Gaddafi's sons:
Banner o Libie Libie Saif al-Islam Gaddafi
(Captured efter war's end)
Banner o Libie Libya Khamis Gaddafi [31]
Banner o Libie Libie Mutassim Gaddafi 
Banner o Libie Libie Saif al-Arab Gaddafi [32]
Banner o Libie Libie Al-Saadi Gaddafi
Military leaders:
Banner o Libie Libie Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr 
(Meenister o Defence)
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Abdullah Senussi
(Captured efter war's end)
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Massoud Abdelhafid
(Heid o the secret polis)
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Baghdadi Mahmudi (POW)
(Libie Prime Meenister)
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Mahdi al-Arabi (POW)
(Deputy chief o staff o the airmy an commander o special forces)
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Mohamed Abu Al-Quasim al-Zwai (POW)
(Secretary-General o the General Fowkcongress)
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Abuzed Omar Dorda (POW)
(Heid o Naitional Intelligence)
Banner o Libie Libie Khouildi Hamidi (POW)
(Deputy heid o the secret polis)
Banner o Libie Libie Khaled Kaim (POW)
(Deputy foreign meenister)
Banner o Libie Libie Abdul Ati al-Obeidi (POW)
(Foreign Meenister)
Banner o Libie Libie Ahmad Ramdan (POW)
(Meenister o Information)
Banner o Libie Libie Salih Rajab al-Mismari
(Meenister o Public Security)
Banner o Libie Libie Moussa Ibrahim
(Gaddafi Spokesman)
Banner o Libie Libie Hasan al-Kabir al-Gaddafi
(Heid o Revolutionary Guard Corps)
Banner o Libie Libie Rafi al-Sharif
(Head of the Navy)
Banner o Libie Libie Ali Sharif al-Rifi
(General and Head of the Air Force)
Banner o Libie Libie Ali Kana
(General and commander of southern forces)
Banner o Libie Libie Awad Hamza
(Infantry leader)
Banner o Libie Libie Bashir Hawadi
(General and field commander)
Banner o Libie Libie Mustafa al-Kharoubi
(General and military strategist)
Banner o Libie Libya Nasr al-Mabrouk
(General and primary police commander)
Banner o Libie Libie Ahmed al-Gaddafi al-Qahsi 
(Airmy colonel an Gaddafi's cousin)
Banner o Libie Libie Mansour Dhao (POW)
(Heid o Gaddafi's personal guards)
Banner o Libie Libie Muftah Anaqrat 
(Brigadier General)

Strength
17,000 defectin sodgers an volunteers[33]

125,000-150,000 volunteers bi war's end
(NTC estimate)[34]


International Forces: Numerous air and maritime forces (see here)

20,000[35]–40,000[36] sodgers an militia
Casualties an losses
5,667–7,059 opposition fechters an supporters killed, 2,886–3,005 missin (see here)

Banner o Unitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick 1 airman killed in traffic accident in Italy[37]
Banner o Netherlands Netherlands 3 Dutch Marines captured (later released)[38]

2,580–3,231 soldiers killed (see here),
7,000 captured*[39]
Estimated total casualties on both sides, including civilians:
25,000[40]–30,000 killed, 4,000 missing[41]
*Large number of loyalist or immigrant civilians, not military personnel, among those captured by rebels,[42] only an estimated minimum of 1,542+ confirmed as soldiers[43]

The Libie ceevil war[44] (an aw referred tae as the Libie revolution[45]) wis an airmit conflict in the North African state o Libie, fought atween forces lyal tae Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his govrenment.[46][47] The war wis precedit bi protests in Benghazi beginnin on 15 Februar 2011, which led tae clashes wi security forces that fired on the croud.[48] The protests escalatit intae a rebellion that spread athort the kintra,[49] wi the forces opposin Gaddafi establishin an interim govrenin body, the Naitional Transitional Cooncil.

The Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil passed an initial resolution on 26 Februar, freezin the assets o Gaddafi an his inner circle an restrictin their travel, an referrit the matter tae the Internaitional Creeminal Court for investigation.[50] In early Mairch, Gaddafi's forces ralliet, pushed eastwards an re-teuk several coastal ceeties afore attackin Benghazi. A further U.N. resolution authorised member states tae establish an enforce a nae-fly zone ower Libie.[51] The Gaddafi government then annoonced a ceasefire, but failed tae uphauld it.[52]

In August, rebel forces engaged in a coastal offensive an teuk maist o their lost territory, an capturit the caipital ceety o Tripoli,[53] while Gaddafi evadit captur an lyalists engagit in a rearguard campaign.[54] On 16 September 2011, the Naitional Transitional Cooncil wis recognised bi the Unitit Naitions as the legal representative o Libie, replacin the Gaddafi govrenment. Muammar Gaddafi remained at large till 20 October 2011, when he wis capturit an killed attemptin tae escape frae Sirt.[55] The Naitional Transitional Cooncil declarit the leeberation o Libie an the offeecial end o the war on 23 October 2011.[56]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

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  3. Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead
  4. Fresh clashes in Libya’s Bani Walid; U.N. says 7,000 held in militia prisons
  5. "Ferocious Battles in Libya as National Council Meets for First Time". News Limited. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Dagher, Sam (21 June 2011). "Libya City Torn by Tribal Feud". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Von Rohr, Mathieu (26 July 2011). "Tribal Rivalries Complicate Libyan War". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  8. "Libya Live Blog – 5 March". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
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  11. Black, Ian (26-10-2011). "Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels". The Guardian. Retrieved 20-11-2011. 
  12. George Malbrunot (06-11-2011). "5 000 Forces spéciales du Qatar avaient été déployées en Libye". Le Figaro. Retrieved 20-11-2011.  (French)
  13. Staff (29 July 2011). "Last Libyan Mission for Norway's F16S To Fly Tomorrow". Agenzia Giornalistica Italia. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  14. "Jordanian Fighters Protecting Aid Mission". The Jordan Times. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  15. Staff (25 March 2011). "UAE Updates Support to UN Resolution 1973". WAM (Emirates News Agency). Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  16. "Libya's Tribal Politics Key to Gaddafi's Fate". Stabroek News. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. 
  17. "Is Libya's Gaddafi Turning to Foreign Mercenaries?". Reuters. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  18. "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya". Cape Town, South Africa: News24. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  19. "Gadhafi Using Foreign Children As Mercenaries In Libya". NPR. 3 March 2011. 
  20. Meo, Nick (27 February 2011). "African Mercenaries in Libya Nervously Await Their Fate". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tuaregs1
  22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tuaregs2
  23. "Libya: Gaddafi and His Mali-Chad Tuareg Mercenaries". Afrik News. 24 March 2011. 
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  26. Swaine, Jon (27 February 2011). "Libya: African Mercenaries 'Immune from Prosecution for War Crimes' – African Mercenaries Hired by the Gaddafi Regime To Kill Libyan Protesters Would Be Immune from Prosecution for War Crimes Due to a Clause in This Weekend's UN Resolution That Was Demanded by the United States". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  27. "Middle East Unrest – Live Blog". Reuters. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
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  29. Staff (10 March 2011). "The Battle for Libya: The Colonel Fights Back – Colonel Muammar Qaddafi Is Trying To Tighten His Grip on the West, While the Rebels' Inexperience Leaves Them Vulnerable in the East". The Economist. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  30. Staff (25 March 2011). "Canadian To Lead NATO's Libya Mission". CBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  31. "Libya: Bulldozers raze Gaddafi Bab al-Aziziya compound". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
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  34. "Armed militia members haven’t been integrated into new Libya". www.feb17.info. Retrieved 2011-11-30. 
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  36. Staff (10 March 2011). "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed". BBC News. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  37. "Airman Killed in Road Accident in Italy". BBC (retrieved 26 Oct 2011).
  38. Staff (3 March 2011). "Three Dutch Marines Captured During Rescue in Libya". BBC News. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  39. Wan, William (23 October 2011). "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
  40. "Residents flee Gaddafi hometown". News.smh.com.au. 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
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  42. "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture". CNN. June 5, 2011. 
  43. 300 prisoners in Benghazi,[1] 230 prisoners in Misrata,[2] 52 prisoners in Nalut,[3] 13 prisoners in Yafran,[4] 50 prisoners in al-Galaa,[5] 147 prisoners in Zintan [6] 600 prisoners in Tripoli [7] 150 [Battle of Sirte (2011)|prisoners in Sirte] minimum of 1,542 reported captured
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  47. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named vision2
  48. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AmnestyRape
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  54. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named guardian-2011-08-24
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