Teotitlán del Valle

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Teotitlán del Valle

Xaguixe
Toun & Municipality
Teotitlán del Valle is locatit in Mexico
Teotitlán del Valle
Teotitlán del Valle
Location in Mexico
Coordinates: 17°01′45″N 96°31′12″W / 17.02917°N 96.52000°W / 17.02917; -96.52000
Kintra Mexico
StateOaxaca
Foondit1465
Aurie
 • Municipality81.54 km2 (31.48 sq mi)
Elevation
1,670 m (5,480 ft)
Population
 (2005)Municipality
 • Municipality5,601
 • Seat
4,427
Time zoneUTC-6 (CST)

Teotitlán del Valle is a smaw veelage an municipality locatit in the Tlacolula Destrict in the east o the Valles Centrales Region, 31 km frae the ceety o Oaxaca in the fuithills o the Sierra Juárez muntains. It is pairt o the Tlacolula Valley destrict.[1] It is kent for its textiles, especially rugs, which are woven on haund-operatit luims, frae oo obtained frae local sheep an dyed mainly wi local, naitural pigments. Thay are weaved in tradeetional designs but modren designs sic as reproductions o famous airtists’ wirk an custom orders are available, as well as tours o faimily-awned wirkshops.[2][3] The name Teotitlán comes frae Nahuatl an means “laund o the gods”. Its Zapotec name is Xaguixe, which means “at the fuit o the muntain”. It wis ane o the first veelages foondit bi the Zapotecs in this aurie, in 1465,[1] an it still retains its Zapotec cultur an leid.[4]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Plaque at kirk citin establishment date

This veelage is considered tae be ane o the first that wis foondit bi the Zapotecs aroond 1465. It wis oreeginally namit Xaquija, which means “celestial constellation”. Accordin tae research done bi Manuel Martínez Gracida, thare wis a lairge stane split in hauf wi the name o the Stane o the Sun. It wis the first idol o the Zapotecs here. It wis believit that a god came frae the heivens in the shape o a bird, accompaniet bi a constellation o starns tae foond the temple here.[1] Teotitlán del Valle wis refoondit as a Spainyie veelage in 1527. It is believit that the faither o ane o the Niños Heroes, bi the name o Agustín Melgar, wis frae here, due tae veelage records bearin his name.[1]

The toun[eedit | eedit soorce]

Teotitlán del Valle is a tradeetional landwart toun that maintains its Zapotec cultur. In the municipal mercat, fowk gather at seiven in the fore-nuin tae buy fuidstuffs an craft materials for thair hames an businesses. Maist fowk here retain auncient tradeetions; a majority o the indwallers speak Zapotec.[1]

Maunday Thursday procession in front o the kirk
Stane frae the Zapotec temple that wis incorporatit intae the foondation o the Preciosa Sangre de Cristo kirk.

The twa main laundmerks in the toun are the Preciosa Sangre de Cristo Kirk an the Commonty Museum. The Preciosa Sangre de Cristo Kirk is the main kirk o the toun an municipality an wis begun in 1581,[1] awtho no completit till 1758.[3] The facade o the kirk is made o quarriet stane cried cantera wi decorative stanewirk in the main entrance an choir windae. This kirk wis biggit on the steid o a local Zapotec temple, which wis destroyed when the Spainyie arrivit, replacin it wi this kirk. In the foondations o the kirk, some o the construction o the oreeginal temple can be seen. On the side o the kirk is a smaw aircheological aurie.[5] Inside thare are traces o 16t hunderyear decoration wi pre-Hispanic motifs.[4] The interior is notable for a lairge nummer o colonial-era santos or statues o saunts an aw, mony executit in fine polychrome that is well preservit tae the present day.[6] Anither releegious attraction is the Chapel o Cristo Grande locatit in a private hame on Aquiles Serdan Street.[3]

Commonty museum

The name o the commonty museum is Balaa Xtee Guech Gulal,[7] which means “in the shadae o the auld veelage/fowk.”[5] The museum opened in 1995 an the maist recent addeetion is a display dedicatit tae the Danza de la Pluma (Feather Dance). The museums conteens sign in Spainyie, Inglis an Zapotec.[3] Thare are three main haws, ane dedicatit tae the aircheology o the municipality, ane tae crafts an ane tae tradeetional weddins. The aircheological haw conteens maistly etched stanes an ceramic items, which visitors can touch.[5] A nummer o the pieces shaw signs o Olmec visitation tae the aurie aroond 500 BCE.[3] The crafts room conteens items sic as auld photographs, looms, exhibits on hou oo is processed an dyes are made an uised tae mak textiles. The weddin haw conteens a recreation o the gruim performin his tradeetional ceremonial obligations, sic as gifts. Thare is a weddin mural an aw.[5]

Accordin tae the Enciclopedia de los Municipios de Mexico, ane tradeetion o betrothal involves the prospective gruim goin tae the prospective bride’s parents, bringin gifts sic as breid, caunles, decorations, chocolate an fruit. Anither is tae “rob” the girl (quotes in the oreeginal), then fynd someane tae negotiate a weddin wi the parents. This body generally is someane wi a guid reputation in the commonty an uisually is a senior ceetizen. S/he communicates the intentions o the boy an states whaur the girl is, aften wi firewirks tae indicate the location. Efter negotiations, the parents set a weddin date an aw come thegither tae arrange the weddin.[1]

The toun’s major festival is the Feast o the Precious Bluid o Christ which occurs each year on the first Wadensday o Julie an lasts aboot a week. The event haes carnival rides an a basketbaw toornament but the main featur is “Danza de la Pluma” or Feather Dance (cried Guyach in Zapotec). Dancers wear elaborate heiddresses made frae pentit feathers, giein rise tae the name in Spainyie. The dance commemorates the conquest o the Aztec bi the Spainyie.[3]

The toun haes a tour service cried Tourist Yú'ù which brings an orients visitors tae sic locations as the commonty museum, the aircheological zone, the municipality dam an twa natural formations cried “Picacho” an “Cuevitas.”[4] The maist characteristic dishes here include mole negro, mole amarillo, liver wi eggs an tamales, which can be filled wi mole, corn, cheese or chicken. Beverages include het chocolate, atole, atole wi pulque an mezcal.[5]

Textiles o Teotitlán del Valle[eedit | eedit soorce]

Airtisan Aida Vasquez Gutierrez an husband wirkin on loom
"Olmec butterfly" bi Isaac Vasquez Garcia
Codice an Zapotec diamond rugs bi Isaac Vásquez García
Feenished rugs for sale

The commonty is famous for its weavins cried “laadi” in the local leid,[3] wi textiles as the main economic activity. This commonty is kent for its woven oo rugs which uise natural dyes sic as those obtained bi the cochineal insect. Thir rugs can hae native indigenous motifs or mair modren designs. The ither main economic activity is agricultur.[4]

Weaving in this veelage dates back at least till 500 BCE. The earliest weavins uised cotton an ixtle an utilisit the backstrap loom. Teotitlán wad pey its financial tribute tae the Aztecs in weavins.[3] Mair modren weavin wis introducit here bi Dominican bishop Juan López Dezárate aroond 1535 when the bishop brocht sheep an treadle looms tae the aurie. The new materials an looms alloued for the weavin a lairge, hivy duty items sic as rugs, serapes an blankets. Ower time the veelage grew an began specializin solely in rugs tae be uised for tred or sale in mercats o ither touns in the ither pairts o the state. Wi the completion o the Pan-American Heich-gate in the late 1940s, the aurie wis connectit wi Mexico Ceety, openin up mercats. In the 1950s wi air traivel, tourists began comin tae Oaxaca an takkin interest in the crafts.[2][3]

The rugs are handcraftit frae oo an maist o the designs are woven frae the craftsmen’s memory.[2] Designs include Zapotec an Mixtec glyphs an fretwirk, Navajo designs (a contentious issue) an mair contemporar designed includin reproductions o wirks bi famous airtists sic as Picasso, Joan Miró, Matisse, Diego Rivera or Rufino Tamayo.[3][4][5] The makkin o the rugs begins the washin o the raw oo tae rid it o dirt an residues. Next it is cairdit then spun intae yarn. The yarn is woond intae lairge baws tae prepare for dyin wi natural dyes sic as those obtained frae the needle bush, indigo, cochineal, “musgo de roca”, brazilwood, Mexican marigold an ithers. some workshops uise chemical dyes.[3][5] The traditional looms are haund-operated.[5]

Weavin is done bi baith sexes in faimily wirkshops in which airtisans o aw ages pairticipate in the wirk.[2] Aboot 150 faimilies are involvit in the craft, as well as several faimilies that specialize in caunle-makkin.[3] Ane sic workshop is the Artesanía Casa Santiago, locatit on the toun’s main street syne 1966. Maist weavers wirk in agricultur as well as weavin but increasin consumer demand haes promptit some tae spend mair time weavin. Wirkshops sic as thir even tak custom orders wi images o modren items sic as a request for a waw hangin promotin Pentax cameras.[2]

Mony o the wirkshops permit visitors tae enter an see hou the rugs an ither textiles are made.[4] Some o the wirkshops hae broadened thair afferins tae include waw hangins, handbags, pillae covers, jackets, ponchos an dresses.[2][3]

The municipality[eedit | eedit soorce]

Municipal Palace

As the seat o a municipality, the toun o Teotitlán del Valle is the govrening authority ower nine ither namit commonties,[8] which covers a territory o 81.54km2.[1] The tot municipal population is 5,601 o which 4,427 or 79% live in the toun proper.[8] The municipality is locatit in the Central Valleys region o Oaxaca, 31 km frae the ceety o Oaxaca in the fuithills o the Sierra Juárez muntains an the seat in locatit in a smaw level aurie in the same. The municipality borders the municipalities o Santa Catarina Lachatao, Santa Catarina Ixtepeji (Ixtlán Destrict) San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya, San Francisco Lachigoló, Santa María del Tule, Tlalixtac de Cabrera, Santo Domingo Tomaltepec an Villa Díaz Ordaz. Principle elevations include the Gueliaa, Cerro Grande Quiea Less an Dai-N Nizz. Rivers include the Grande, the Gueu-Liaa, Guen-Dzu, Gue Duin, La Tchuvi, the Gue Ve-U an Gue Ya wi ane dam cried the Piedra Azul. It haes a temperate climate seemilar tae that o the ceety o Oaxaca. Vegetation here is mixed wi a nummer o tree species. Wildlife is dominatit bi various bird species sic as falcons, houlets an ravens as well as smaw mammals sic as opossums, skunks, an rabbits.[1]

Maist o the municipalities laund is dedicatit tae agricultur, amaist aw o which is for auto-consumption. Saxty aicht percent o the population is dedicatit tae the elaboration o crafts an aw, especially o oo rugs in tradeetional Zapotec designs.[1]

Dwarf Vireo seen at Teotitlán

Mony birders come tae view birds, especially abuin the Piedra Azul Dam. Thay are maistly targetin the "dry interior" endemics, lik Ocellated Thrasher, Bridled Sparrae, Dwarf Vireo, Oaxaca Sparrae, Boucard's Wren, Gray-breasted Woodpecker, Slaty Vireo, Dusky Hummingbird, an Sumichrast's Scrub-Jay. Birds can been seen at the Benito Juárez dam an aw when it fills durin the rainy saison in the simmer. Winter months (November–Mairch) are the best time tae see migratory birds, includin herons an kingfishers.[3]

In addeetion tae birdwatchin, ither activities available in the muntain auries include hikin, horseback ridin an muntain biking.(inforamador) The twa main attractions in the muntains is El Pichacho Peak, or Cerro Gie Bets (“stane brither” in Zapotec) an the Cuevita del Pedimento caves. Baith are athin hikin distance but permission is require an can be obtained frae the commonty museum.[3] El Picacho is considered tae be sacred, an its peaks affers a wide view o the Tlacolula Valley.[5] The Cuevita del Pedimento is a set o three caves which is tradeetionally visitit on New Year’s in order tae peteetion the image o the Virgin Mary thare for favors for the follaein year.[3][5]

Ane tradeetion in this municipality is the concept o “tequio” or the performance o admeenistrative duties athoot monetary compensation as a teep o commonty service. Thir duties include actin as municipal preses, which is a full time commitment o three years.[2]

In media[eedit | eedit soorce]

Teotitlán del Valle is the settin for the Gideon Oliver novel Skull Duggery bi Aaron Elkins.[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México Oaxaca Teotitlán del Valle" (in Spanish). Mexico: INAFED. Retrieved December 7, 2009.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Starkman, Alvin (2007-03-13). "Casa Santiago: Rug Weavers of Teotitlán del Valle, Oaxaca". Oaxaca, Mexico: The Pacific Coast of Mexico (Tom Zap). Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 Mader, Ron. "Teotitlán del Valle Guide". Planeta.com. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "Ecoturismo Teotitlán del Valle" (in Spanish). Oaxaca Travel. Retrieved December 2009. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Ortiz, Hilda (2009-07-25). "T eotitlán del Valle, en Oaxaca". El Informador (in Spanish). Guadalajara, Mexico. Retrieved 2009-12-07.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  6. Santos in Oaxaca's Ancient Churches: Teotitlán del Valle.
  7. http://www.oaxacamarket.org/Teotitlanmuseo/index.html
  8. 8.0 8.1 "INEGI Census 2005" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2009-12-07.CS1 maint: unrecognised leid (link)
  9. "Ventress Memorial Library - New Books: Skull Duggery". Retrieved 2014-03-09.

Coordinates: 17°02′N 96°30′W / 17.033°N 96.500°W / 17.033; -96.500