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Template:Citation

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Template:For2

Template:Csdoc The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used either in a footnote (between <ref>...</ref> tags) or in a section that lists sources. This template uses the same Lua code as citation style 1 (CS1) templates with parameters to change the displayed format to citation style 2 (CS2).

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter. Also, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates by default do not (although they can be made to do so).

Regardless of which citation templates are used or even if none are used at all, all citations should have the same format throughout an article in the saved, rendered text.

Note: All parameter names must be lowercase.

Simple citations

This section covers the most commonly used parameters. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra parameters from the full list. Spacing and ordering of the parameters within the template is irrelevant and does not affect the final, rendered text.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| ol        = 7120924W
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL 7120924W 

Full citation parameters

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| translator-last =
| translator-first =
| translator-link = 
| translator2-last =
| translator2-first =
| translator2-link =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| encyclopedia =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi-inactive-date=
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| dead-url    =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters

Syntax

Template:Csdoc

Template:Csdoc

COinS

Template:Csdoc

Deprecated

Template:Csdoc

Description

Authors

Template:Csdoc

Editors

Template:Csdoc

Title

Template:Csdoc Template:Csdoc Template:Csdoc Template:Csdoc

Date

Template:Csdoc

Periodical

Template:Csdoc

Publisher

Template:Csdoc

Edition, series, volume

Template:Csdoc Template:Csdoc Template:Csdoc

In-source locations

Template:Csdoc

URL

Template:Csdoc

Chapter URL

Template:Csdoc

Anchor

Template:Csdoc

Identifiers

Template:Csdoc Template:Csdoc

Quote

Template:Csdoc

Laysummary

Template:Csdoc

Display options

Template:Csdoc

Subscription or registration required

Template:Csdoc

Examples

Books

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, retrieved November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archived frae the oreeginal on October 13, 2007, retrieved October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–161
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J,; et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–161, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, 26 (19), p. 289 

Conference papers and public lectures

Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Lecture
{{Citation
| last   = Habicht
| first  = Christian
| contribution = Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers
| year   = 1988
| title  = David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World
| publisher = Princeton University
| page=14 
}}
Habicht, Christian (1988), "Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers", David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World, Princeton University, p. 14 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| year=1999
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| location = London
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| year = 1999
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| location = London
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (published 1976), 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), written at Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J., ed., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit), Corinne, Utah (published September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1 

Press release

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = https://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, retrieved April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3 

Citing patents

Parameters (all are optional)

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template.

To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors (or editors, if no authors are given) and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki § Time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g. "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates

  1. The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include: Dates should not be linked (say, to a Wikipedia article of the same name) in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) § Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools

See Wikipedia:Citing sources § Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

TemplateData

This is the TemplateData documentation for the template used by the new VisualEditor.

Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters

ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
Last namelastauthorauthor1authorslast1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Linesuggested
First namefirstfirst1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Linesuggested
title of sourcetitle

Title of source; displays in italics.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringrequired
date of sourcedate

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
url of sourceurl

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Workworkjournalwebsitenewspapermagazineencyclopediaencyclopaediadictionarymailinglist

Name of the work in which the cited title is found

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Linesuggested
Issueissuenumber

Issue number

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Linesuggested
Patent Numberpatent-number

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Descriptiondescription

Type of patent; shown between country code and number.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Publication Datepublication-datepubdate

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Issue Dateissue-date

Date patent was issued by patent agency.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Date formatdf

Sets rendered dates to the specified format

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Numberoptional
Postscriptpostscript

Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Editor last nameeditor-lasteditoreditor-surnameeditor-last1editor-surname1editor1editor1-lasteditor1-surnameeditors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknownoptional
Editor first nameeditor-firsteditor-first1editor-given1editor1-firsteditor1-given

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknownoptional
Author Maskauthor-maskauthormask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Original yearorig-yearorigyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Numberoptional
Translated titletrans-titletrans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
Translated chapter titletrans-chaptertrans_chapter

An English language chapter title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
Archive URLarchive-urlarchiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Dead URLdead-urldeadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Seriesseriesversion

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
periodicalperiodical

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
contributioncontribution

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
chapter-urlchapter-urlchapterurl

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
contribution-urlcontribution-url

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
chapter-formatchapter-format

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
othersothers

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Location of publicationplacelocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
inin

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
ASINasinASIN

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
DOIdoiDOI

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
doi_inactivedatedoi_inactivedate

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Dateoptional
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Numberoptional
OLol

Open Library identifier

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Numberoptional
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Numberoptional
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Contentoptional
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
URL access dateaccess-dateaccessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Dateoptional
Lay URLlaysummarylayurllay-url

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Lay sourcelay-sourcelaysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Lay datelay-datelaydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Dateoptional
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

Default
,
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last author ampersandlast-author-amplastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Booleanoptional
Display authorsdisplayauthorsdisplay-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Numberoptional
Archive datearchive-datearchivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Dateoptional
inventor-lastinventor-lastinventor-surnameinventor-last1inventorinvent-1invent1inventor1-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor2-lastinventor2-lastinventor2invent2inventor2-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor3-lastinventor3-lastinventor3invent3inventor3-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor4-lastinventor4-lastinventor4invent4inventor4-surname

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor-firstinventor-firstinventor1-firstinventor-giveninventor1-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor2-firstinventor2-firstinventor2-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor3-firstinventor3-firstinventor3-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventor4-firstinventor4-firstinventor4-given

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventorlinkinventorlinkinventorlink1

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventorlink2inventorlink2

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventorlink3inventorlink3

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
inventorlink4inventorlink4

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Last name 2last2author2surname2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 2first2given2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 3last3author3surname3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 3first3given3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 4last4author4surname4

The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 4first4given4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 5last5author5surname5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 5first5given5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 6last6author6surname6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 7last7author7surname7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 7first7given7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 8last8author8surname8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 8first8given8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Last name 9last9author9surname9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
First name 9first9given9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Author linkauthor-linkauthorlinkauthor1-linkauthorlink1

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 2author-link2author2-linkauthorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 3author-link3author3-linkauthorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 4author-link4author4-linkauthorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 5author-link5author5-linkauthorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 6author-link6author6-linkauthorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 7author-link7author7-linkauthorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 8author-link8author8-linkauthorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Author link 9author-link9author9-linkauthorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Coauthorcoauthor

Coauthor

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringdeprecated
Coauthorscoauthors

Coauthors

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringdeprecated
Editor last name 2editor2-lasteditor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 2editor2-firsteditor2-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 3editor3-lasteditor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 3editor3-firsteditor3-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 4editor4-lasteditor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 4editor4-firsteditor4-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 5editor5-lasteditor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 5editor5-firsteditor5-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 6editor6-lasteditor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 6editor6-firsteditor6-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 7editor7-lasteditor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 7editor7-firsteditor7-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 8editor8-lasteditor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 8editor8-firsteditor8-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor last name 9editor9-lasteditor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
Editor first name 9editor9-firsteditor9-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Lineoptional
editor-linkeditor-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
editor1-linkeditor1-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
editor2-linkeditor2-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
editor3-linkeditor3-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
editor4-linkeditor4-link

no description

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last nametranslator-lasttranslatortranslator-last1translator1translator1-last

The surname of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first nametranslator-firsttranslator1-firsttranslator-first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator linktranslator-linktranslator-link1translator1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator last name 2translator-last2translator2translator2-last

The surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 2translator-first2translator2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 3translator-last3translator3translator3-last

The surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 3translator-first3translator3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 4translator-last4translator4translator4-last

The surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 4translator-first4translator4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 5translator-last5translator5translator5-last

The surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 5translator-first5translator5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 6translator-last6translator6translator6-last

The surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 6translator-first6translator6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 7translator-last7translator7translator7-last

The surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 7translator-first7translator7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 8translator-last8translator8translator8-last

The surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 8translator-first8translator8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator last name 9translator-last9translator9translator9-last

The surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator first name 9translator-first9translator9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Stringoptional
Translator link 2translator-link2translator2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 3translator-link3translator3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 4translator-link4translator4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 5translator-link5translator5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 6translator-link6translator6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 7translator-link7translator7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 8translator-link8translator8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Translator link 9translator-link9translator9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Pageoptional
Country Codecountry-code

Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
Unknownoptional

Template:UF-COinS

See also

Template:Wikipedia referencing Template:Wikipedia help pages