Suharto

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Suharto
ꦯꦸꦲꦂꦠ
President Suharto, 1993.jpg
Suharto in 1993
2nt Preses o Indonesie
In office
12 Mairch 1967 – 21 Mey 1998
Actin tae 27 Mairch 1968
Vice Preses Hamengkubuwono IX
Adam Malik
Umar Wirahadikusumah
Sudharmono
Try Sutrisno
B. J. Habibie
Precedit bi Sukarno
Succeedit bi B. J. Habibie
16t Secretar General o Non-Aligned Movement
In office
7 September 1992 – 20 October 1995
Precedit bi Dobrica Ćosić
Succeedit bi Ernesto Samper Pizano
4th Indonesian Armed Forces Commander
In office
1969–1973
Precedit bi Abdul Haris Nasution
Succeedit bi Maraden Panggabean
8t Indonesian Aormy Chief o Staff
In office
1965–1967
Precedit bi Pranoto Reksosamudra
Succeedit bi Maraden Panggabean
14t Meenister o Defense an Security o Indonesie
In office
Mairch 1966 – September 1971
Preses Sukarno
Suharto
Precedit bi M. Sarbini
Succeedit bi Maraden Panggabean
1st Airmed Force an Strategic Reserve (KOSTRAD) Commander
In office
1961–1965
Precedit bi Poseetion creatit
Succeedit bi Umar Wirahadikusumah
Personal details
Born 8 Juin 1921(1921-06-08)
Kemusuk, Dutch East Indies
Dee'd 27 Januar 2008(2008-01-27) (aged 86)
Jakarta, Indonesie
Naitionality Indonesian
Poleetical pairty Golkar
Spoose(s) Siti Hartinah (m. 1947–1996; her daith)
Bairns Siti Hardiyanti Rukmana[1]
Sigit Harjojudanto
Bambang Trihatmodjo
Titiek Suharto
Tommy Suharto
Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih
Religion Islam
Signatur
Militar service
Allegiance Indonesian Naitional Airmed Forces
Service/branch Lambang TNI AD.png Indonesian Airmy
Rank Jenderal besar pdh ad.png TNI General o the Airmy

Suharto (Javanese: ꦯꦸꦲꦂꦠ;[2] Gêdrìk: Suhartå; O-Javanese: Suharta; About this sound pronunciation ; 8 Juin 1921 – 27 Januar 2008) wis the seicont Preses o Indonesie, hauldin the office for 31 years frae the oostin o Sukarno in 1967 till his resignation in 1998.

Suharto wis born in a smaw veelage, Kemusuk, in the Godean aurie near the ceety o Yogyakarta, in the Dutch colonial era.[3] He grew up in hummle circumstances.[4] His Javanese Muslim paurents divorced nae lang efter his birth, an he leeved wi foster paurents for muckle o his bairnheid. In the Japanese occupation o Indonesie, Suharto served in Japanese-organised Indonesie siccarity forces. Indonesie's unthirldom struggle saw his jynin the newly formed Indonesie airmy. Suharto rose tae the rank o major general follaein Indonesie unthirldom. An attemptit coup on 30 September 1965 allegedly backed bi the Indonesie Communist Pairty wis coontered bi Suharto-led truips.[5] The airmy subsequently led an anti-communist purge that the CIA descrived as "ane o the worst mass murthers o the 20t century"[6] an Suharto wrestit pouer frae Indonesie's foondin preses, Sukarno. He wis appyntit acting president in 1967, replacin Sukarno, an electit Preses the follaein year. He then muntit a social campaign kent as De-Soekarnoisation in an effort tae reduce the umwhile Preses' influence. Support for Suharto's presidency wis strang ootthrou the 1970s and 1980s. Bi the 1990s, the New Order's authoritarianism an widespreid corruption[7] war a soorce o discontent an, follaein a severe financial creesis, led tae widespreid unrest an his resignation in Mey 1998. Suharto dee'd in 2008 an wis gien a state funeral.

The legacy o Suharto's 31-year rule is debated baith in Indonesie an abraid. Unner his "New Order" admeenistration, Suharto constructit a strang, centralised an militar-dominatit gorvenment. An abeelity tae mainteen stabeelity ower a sprawlin an diverse Indonesie an an avowedly anti-Communist stance wan him the economic an diplomatic support o the Wast in the Cauld War. For maist o his presidency, Indonesie experienced signeeficant economic growthe an industrialisation,[8] dramatically improvin heal, eddication an leevin staundarts.[9]

Plans tae awaird Naitional Hero status tae Suharto are bein conseedert bi the Indonesie govrenment an hae been debatit vigorously in Indonesie.[10] Accordin tae Transparency Internaitional, Suharto is the maist corrupt leader in modren history, haein embezzled an alleged $15–35 billion in his rule.[11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Berger, Marilyn (28 January 2008). "Suharto Dies at 86; Indonesian Dictator Brought Order and Bloodshed". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2008. 
  2. Kamus Pepak Basa Jawa, Sudaryanto/Pranowo, 2001, #1359
  3. Soeharto, as related to G. Dwipayana and Ramadhan K.H. (1989). Soeharto: Pikiran, ucapan dan tindakan saya: otobiografi [Soeharto: My thoughts, words and deeds: an autobiography]. Jakarta: PT Citra Lamtoro Gung Persada. ISBN 979-8085-01-9. 
  4. See the details in Chapter 2, 'Akar saya dari desa' (My village roots), in Soeharto, op. cit.
  5. Friend (2003), pages 107–109; Chris Hilton (writer and director) (2001). Shadowplay (Television documentary). Vagabond Films and Hilton Cordell Productions. ; Ricklefs (1991), pages 280–283, 284, 287–290
  6. Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 p. 81.
  7. estimates o govrenment funds misappropriatit bi the Suharto faimily range frae US$1.5 billion an US,5 billion.(Ignatius, Adi (11 September 2007). "Mulls Indonesia Court Ruling". Time. Retrieved 9 August 2009. ); Haskin, Colin, "Suharto dead at 86"[deid airtin], The Globe and Mail, 27 Januar 2008
  8. Miguel, Edward; Paul Gertler; David I. Levine (January 2005). "Does Social Capital Promote Industrialization? Evidence from a Rapid Industrializer". Econometrics Software Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. 
  9. McDonald, Hamish (28 January 2008). "No End to Ambition". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  10. "Pro Kontra Soeharto Pahlawan Nasional". Trias Politica. 26 May 2016. Archived frae the oreeginal on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  11. "Suharto tops corruption rankings". BBC News. 25 March 2004. Retrieved 4 February 2006.